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“Good” NUTRITION What does it mean? Why does it matter?
Nutrition The science of how your body uses food Which foods and beverages/ in what quantities provide the energy and building material you need to construct and maintain EVERY organ in your system
Good Nutrition üHealth promotion *Weak bones – not enough clacium *Gums bleed – insufficient vitamin C üDisease prevention *Cardiovascular diseases, Cancer, Diabetes üEnergy üWeight control
“My. Plate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image -- a place setting for a meal. Before you eat, think about what goes on your plate or in your cup or bowl. ”
Fruits provide nutrients vital for health and maintenance of your body. • Naturally low in fat, sodium and calories • None have cholesterol • Fruits are sources of many essential nutrients that are underconsumed, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, and folate (folic acid).
Potassium Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain healthy blood pressure. Fruit sources of potassium include: • Bananas • prunes and prune juice • dried peaches and apricots • Cantaloupe • honeydew melon • orange juice
Dietary Fiber • Dietary fiber from fruits helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease. • Fiber-containing foods such as fruits help provide a feeling of fullness with fewer calories. • Whole or cut-up fruits are sources of dietary fiber; fruit juices contain little or no fiber. • Fiber is important for proper bowel function and reduces constipation and diverticulosis.
Vitamin C is important for: • growth and repair of all body tissues • helps heal cuts and wounds • keeps teeth and gums healthy
Folate (folic acid) • Helps the body form red blood cells which carry oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body. • Women of childbearing age who may become pregnant should consume adequate folate from foods. This reduces the risk of neural tube defects, spina bifida, and anencephaly during fetal development.
Vegetables provide nutrients vital for health and maintenance of your body. • Naturally low in fat, sodium and calories • None have cholesterol • Fruits are sources of many essential nutrients such as: potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin A and folate.
*Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts as a member of the Vegetable Group. *Vegetables may be raw or cooked; fresh, frozen, canned, or dried/dehydrated; and may be whole, cut-up, or mashed. *Based on their nutrient content, vegetables are organized into 5 subgroups: dark-green, starchy, red and orange, beans and peas, and other vegetables.
2 ½ Cups
Health benefits Eating a diet rich in vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet may: üreduce risk for heart disease, including heart attack and stroke. üprotect against certain types of cancers. üreduce the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. ülower blood pressure, and may also reduce the risk of developing kidney stones and help to decrease bone loss. übe useful in helping to lower calorie intake.
Calories The amount of heat produced when food is burned in your body cells • Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one liter of water one degree centigrade (Celsius) at sea level • Proper scientific term = Kilocalorie
**Recommended daily caloric intake varies by age, gender and medical history
Solid fats and added sugars add calories to the food but few or no nutrients. These calories are called EMPTY CALORIES
The foods and beverages that provide the most Empty Calories for Americans are: • Cakes, cookies, pastries, and donuts (contain both solid fat and added sugars) • Sodas, energy drinks, sports drinks, and fruit drinks (contain added sugars) • Cheese (contains solid fat) • Pizza (contains solid fat) • Ice cream (contains both solid fat and added sugars) • Sausages, hot dogs, bacon, and ribs (contain solid fat)
U. S. Public Health Services & U. S. Department of Agriculture update the Dietary Guidelines for Americans every five years Some General Guidelines: üBalance your calorie intake with energy output in the form of regular exercise üEat enough carbohydrates (primarily complex) to account for 45% - 65% of your total daily calories = (900 -1300 calories on a 2000 calorie diet) üKeep your saturated fat intake no more than 7% of your daily calories = (140 calories) üDrink alcohol only in moderation
MACROnutrients Needed in large quantities Carbohydrates Needed in smaller quantities MICROnutrients Vitamins s Proteins Fats Water Mineral
(4 calories/ gram of weight) 6 ounces per day =?
Popcorn …. . 3 cups (4 calories/ gram of weight) Bread …. . 1 slice Pasta …. . ½ cup cooked Oatmeal …. . ½ cup cooked Pancakes …. . 1 pancake
Not all Grains are the same…
What is a Refined Grain? • Bran and germ have been removed – Loss of B vitamins, iron, and FIBER • Often ENRICHED – Only B vitamins and iron are added back • Often contain solid fats and added sugars which may cause us to consume excess calories contributing to weight gain
Carbohydrates Simple vs Complex
(4 calories/ gram of weight)
Choosing Carbohydrates Wisely In addition to being simple or complex carbohydrate sources, foods can also vary in how processed they are. Whole foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and beans are generally considered less processed, while refined foods such as fruit punch, potato chips, white bread, sugary cereals, candy, and fried foods are considered more processed. During processing, many of the nutrients and much of the fiber found in whole foods is often stripped away and certain problematic ingredients, such as fat, sugar, and salt, are added, resulting in a less healthful food.
Getting the Best Carb-Rich Foods Choose whole, unprocessed foods from plant sources. Choosing whole fruit instead of juice, a whole-grain side dish instead of crackers, and fresh vegetables instead of potato chips will ensure you are getting complex carbohydrates, complete with fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Remember also that all types of meat and eggs are essentially devoid of carbohydrates. When buying packaged foods, check food labels for the word "whole" in front of the word "grain" and make sure that corn syrup or one of the other simple carbohydrates listed above doesn't appear among the first few ingredients on the list.
Smart Carbs to Limit Smarter Carbs Best Choices Instead of: Choose: Or better yet: Candy Dried fruit Whole fruit Soda or punch Fruit juice Seltzer + dash of juice White bread Whole-wheat bread Seven-grain bread Enriched pasta Whole-wheat pasta Cracked wheat pilaf White crackers Whole-grain cracker Vegetable sticks Cotton candy Caramel apple Apple Chocolate chip cookie Oatmeal raisin cookie Strawberries Sugary cereal Bran cereal Rolled oats
Choose My Plate Whole Grain Top Ten handouts…
Proteins function as building blocks for bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood. They are also building blocks for enzymes, hormones, and vitamins. Proteins are one of three nutrients that provide calories (the others are fat and carbohydrates).
Proteins (4 calories/ gram of weight) Build, repair and maintain your body cells • Made of amino acids o. Essential and Nonessential o. Complete and Incomplete Proteins • Found in meats, eggs, cheese, milk, seafood • Some proteins can be found in grains, beans, veggies
Fat A healthy body needs fat to build tissue, manufacture biochemicals such as hormones, provide energy and a place to store it • 9 calories (energy)/ per gram of weight • Harder for body to pull energy from fat than from carbs and proteins
Good fats, meaning monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, contain essential fatty acids and are a major source of vitamin D. Bad fats, meaning trans and saturated fats, raise (LDL) cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart diseases.
Unsaturated Fat • Typically found in vegetable products and tends to be liquid at room temperature. • Examples include sunflower, soybean, peanut, almond and olive oils. • Fish also produce polyunsaturated fat called Omega-3 • Called good fats because they can improve blood cholesterol levels, ease inflammation, stabilize heart rhythms, and play a number of other beneficial roles
Saturated Fat • Found in animal products and is typically solid at room temperature. • Examples include lard, butter, milk fat and meat fat. • Our bodies can make all the saturated fat we need • It has undesirable effects in cardiovascular disease • As a general rule, it's a good idea to keep your intake of saturated fats as low as possible. (Saturated fats are part of many foods, including vegetable oils that are mainly unsaturated fats, so we can't eliminate them from our diets. ) Seven percent of total calories or lower is a good target. Red meat and dairy fats are the main sources of saturated fat in our diets, so keeping these low is the primary way to reduce intake of saturated fat.
Trans fats • Trans fatty acids, more commonly called trans fats, are made by heating liquid vegetable oils in the presence of hydrogen gas, a process called hydrogenation. • This process makes them more stable and less likely to spoil, easier to transport and can withstand repeated heating without breaking down, making them ideal for frying fast foods. • Consuming trans fats raises the amount of *LDL and lowers the amount of *HDL in the body • A new labeling law that forces food companies to list trans fats on the label should help curb the consumption of these harmful fats.
Cholesterol – a waxy, fatlike substance found in cells of all mammals • Small amount needed to make hormones and provide structure to your cell membranes • “Bad cholesterol” = Low Density Lipoproteins = LDL • “Good cholesterol = High Density Lipoproteins = HDL • Diets high in saturated fats raise bad cholesterol levels (LDL) in the blood
Think of HDL as the “garbage trucks” of the bloodstream
Watch out! “Fat-free” products often replace healthful fats with added sugar, sodium and refined carbohydrates