- Slides: 21
THE NORMAN INVASION ENGL 301 -131 Prepared by: Ms. Sahar Deknash
THE BEGINNING OF THE STORY At the beginning of 1066, the king of England, Edward the Confessor, was old and sick. He had no children or brothers and sisters – the question was: who would succeed him? On January 5, 1066, the king died after he named Harold Godwinson, the Earl of Wessex, as his successor according to Harold’s claim. He was not a blood relative, but he was the commander of the King’s army and the Witan ( English nobles) approved Edward’s decision. Harold was crowned on January 7, 1066. However, Harold was not the only one who thought he should be the next king of England.
Other Candidates * William, Duke of Normandy * Harald Hardarada, king of Norway * Edgar the Atheling, Edward's nephew
What happened next? Harold kept an army on the south coast waiting for William’s invasion during the summer of 1066. Fortunately, William could not launch his invasion fleet and on September 8 th because of the strong winds on the coast. Therefore, Harold sent his army home. On September 18 th, he received news that Hardarada had landed in the north with 300 ships. Harold marched north to confront him with his elite troops. Others joined on the way. The English defeated Hardarada victoriously.
The Political Situation in 1066
The Battle of Hastings 14 th Oct. 1066 On September 29 th, just four days after Harold’s crushing victory William landed his army at Pevensey Bay, near a place called Hastings, 250 miles away. He had a vast fleet of 700 ships carried 7000 infantry and cavalry. Harold marched quickly- brave but foolish- south with his force of 7000 – of which only 2000 were the highly-trained soldiers. The battle took place at Seniac Hill. Harold’s troops controlled the hill, then William’s troops pretended to run away, then they made another turn from the other side of the hill. The Battle ended with the death of Harold by an arrow in his eye. William became known as the Conqueror after this victory.
THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS
Why Did William Win? The reasons are categorised as following: a. William’s good tactics and leadership b. Harold’s mistakes c. Luck
Why Did William Win? The Normans had knights on horseback while the Saxons did not. ( cavalry) William was determined to become King of England. The way from north to the south made Harold’s men very tired. William tricked Harold’s men into leaving their strong position on the hill. Harold was killed, demoralising the Saxons. The Normans had archers, the Saxons did not. Some of Harold’s best troops had been killed at the battle in the north. Hardarada invaded England shortly before William.
England After The Norman Invasion William ruled Normandy as well as England, and for the next 500 years English kings also held land in France. Large numbers of English people, especially from the former landowning class, ultimately found Norman domination unbearable and emigrated to Scotland, the Byzantine Empire, the Scandinavian countries. Others settled in Ireland (as did Godwin and Magnus, sons of Harold Godwinson) and perhaps as far afield as Russia and the coasts of the Black Sea
The Influence Of The Norman Invasion The Norman conquest was a crucial event in English history. Why? 1. It largely removed the native ruling class, replacing it with a foreign, French-speaking monarchy, aristocracy, and clerical hierarchy. This, in turn, brought about a transformation of the English language and the culture of England in a new era often referred to as Norman England.
2. Normans quickly adapted to the indigenous culture, renouncing paganism and converting to Christianity. They further blended into the culture by population. intermarrying with the local
3. By bringing England under the control of rulers originating in France, the Norman conquest linked the country more closely with continental Europe, lessened the Scandinavian influence, and connected England to France in specific.
4. One of the most obvious changes was the introduction of Anglo-Norman, a northern dialect of Old French, as the language of the classes in England, displacing Old English. This predominance was further reinforced and complicated in the midtwelfth century.
CONCLUSION The Norman Conquest was the last successful invasion of England by a foreign claimant. Others have tried – such as the Spanish, the French, the Germans – and failed. We can therefore look back on the Norman Conquest as helping to shape the England of the present.
Quiz 1)Who was the King of England at the beginning of 1066? Harold Godwinson Edward the Confessor William the Conqueror 2) Why was there a problem when the King died? It was unclear who would be King next Nobody wanted to be King The weather was terrible 3) Why was the year 1064 important to Duke William? He was born that year It was the year he became Duke of Normandy Harold is supposed to have promised to support Duke William 4) Why might we doubt Harold Godwinson's claim? He was lying He didn't have an independent witnesses He had no claim to the throne
5) In 1066, who invaded England first? Harold Hardrada Harold Godwinson Duke William of Normandy 6) When was the Battle with Hardrada? Sunday 24 th September 1066 Monday 25 th September 1066 Tuesday 26 th September 1066 7) How was King Harold killed? An arrow in the eye He fell backwards off his horse He was hurt by an arrow in the eye, and then killed by sword
Revision Questions 1. Who was King Harold Godwin? 2. What were the names of the 3 men, who claimed throne after Edward’s death? 3. Where did Harald land in England? 4. Was William crowned as the King of England? When?
6. What is the nickname given to William ? 7. When and where did the Battle of Hastings take place? 8. Who were the two sides fighting? 9. Who left his life in the Battle of Hastings? 10. What was the result of the Battle of Hastings?