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Musicianship Skills Ensemble Skills Vocal/Instrumental Skills
Goal Develop Healthy Vocal Skills • Healthy Vocal Skills (Tone Development) – – – – Breath (motion, flow, support) Register adjustment Resonance, focus and placement Vowels and consonants Beauty and freedom Timbre: bright, dark (reflect text, mood) Voicing, range, tessitura, dynamic range, excessive length, tempi, etc.
Goal Develop Harmony & Choral Skills • Harmony Skills – Unison – Ostinati • Rhythmic & Melodic • Root Chord Melody – Echo-Type Songs • Suspended Pitches – – Countermelodies Descants Partner Songs Canons & Rounds • Harmony Skills cont. – Vertical Harmony • Oblique, Contrary, Similar, Parallel • Choral Skills – – – Balance Blend Intonation Entrances/Releases Vitality
Goal Develop Musicianship Skills • Musicianship Skills – Reading Skills • Meter – Simple & Compound • Rhythm – Beat Division – Beat Subdivision – Borrowed Division • Tonal – Major, Minor, Modal • Melody – Diatonic Steps – Chord Tone Skips » Tonic » Dominant » Subdominant • Musicianship Skills – Aural Skills • Error detection • ID intervals, chords – Dictation – Composition – Improvisation Literature should offer positive experiences at reinforcing musicianship skills
Musicianship Skills Ensemble Skills Literature Vocal/Instrumental Skills
Repertoire Should Foster. . . Healthy Vocal Skills Harmony/Choral Skills Musicianship/Literacy Skills
Repertoire maybe the director’s most significant contribution to the choir’s finished product so. . .
Know “WHY” You Selected Each Piece! • Base choices on educational and musical objectives; • Focus on the knowledge and skills that the composition teaches well or uniquely; • Make sure each piece fits into a welldefined spiral curriculum; • Balance historical periods, genres, styles, tonalities, meters, tempi, length, languages, etc.
Oxford University Press Progressive Sight Singing Second Edition ISBN 0195386043 Companion Website http: //www. oup. com/us/krueger E-Mail [email protected] com
Resources u. Smart Moves: Why Learning Is Not All In Your Head, Carla Hannaford, ISBN 0 -915556 -37 -5 u. The Dominance Factor, Carla Hannaford, ISBN 0 -915556 -31 -6 u. The Ways Children Learn Music, An Introduction and Practical Guide to Music Learning Theory, Eric Bluestein, GIA Publications, G 5440 u. Music Play: The Early Childhood Music Curriculum Guide; Valerio, Reynolds, Bolton, Taggart and Gordon. GIA Publications, G-J 236 u. Jump Right In Song Collections David Woods and Edwin Gordon, GIA Publication, G-J 13
Resources u. Old and New Rounds and Canons. Harry R. Wilson, Harold Flammer Music, G-5002 u 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching. Bolkovac and Johnson. Boosey & Hawkes, 1996. u. The King’s Singers Book of Rounds, Canons and Partsongs. Hal Leonard: HL 08743259 u. Pentatonic Partners. Cristi Cary Miller, Hal Leonard: 09970253 u. Five Concert Canons. (3 -5 voices) Ron Jeffers. Earthsongs, B-08
Resources • Two-Part American Folk Songs. Denise Bacon. Wellesley, MA: Kodaly Center of America. • 120 Singing Games and Dances for Elementary Schools. Lois Choksy and David Brummitt. Prentice Hall. • Jump Right In Song Collections. David Woods and Edwin Gordon. GIA Publication, G-J 13 • Music Play: The Early Childhood Music Curriculum Guide. Valerio, Reynolds, Bolton, Taggart and Gordon. GIA Publications, G-J 236
Resources • Note Grouping: A Method for Achieving Expression and Style In Musical Performance. James Morgan Thurmond Meredith Music Resource
Resources • Vocal Health and Pedagogy: Volume I Science and Assessment Robert Sataloff San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing, Inc. • Vocal Health and Pedagogy: Volume II Advanced Assessment and Treatment Robert Sataloff San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing, Inc.
Resources • International Phonetic Alphabet for Singers. Joan Wall. • Diction For Singers: A Concise Reference for English, Italian, Latin, German, French and Spanish Pronunciation. Joan Wall, Robert Caldwell, Tracy Gavilanes and Sheila Allen.
Resources • IPA On-Line Source: www. ipasource. com • IPA Fonts: www. unc. edu/~jlsmith/ipafonts. html • Using IPA Fonts with Mac OS X http: //linguisticmystic. com/2007/03/08/usingipa-fonts-with-mac-os-x-the-comprehensiveguide/
Translations R e s o u r ce s and Annotations of Choral Repertoire. Ron Jeffers Earthsongs – Volume I: Latin – Volume II: German – Volume III: French and Italian – Volume IV: Hebrew
Resources • New York City Blueprint for Teaching and Learning in Music. – The Music Educators Toolbox is a collection of free, open-source learning resources and assessment tools created for classroom use by music teachers and Carnegie Hall teaching artists. – www. carnegiehall. org/Education/Music-Educators-Toolbox/ – Each grade level contains: • Activity Pages: short sample lesson plans and activities with links to related formative and summative assessments. Activity pages include downloadable teacher and student worksheets as well as corresponding audio clips. • Formative Assessments: a series of assessments and rubrics designed to further the progress and development of students through reflection and revision. • Summative Assessments: culminating tasks intended to evaluate student progress at the conclusion of a unit of study. The assessments may also be used in conjunction with other lessons on the same topic. • Video Exemplars: footage of teachers and teaching artists implementing the activities and assessments in the classroom, as led by Carnegie Hall teaching artists and classroom music teachers. • Related Links: grade-appropriate, conceptually related additional resources and curricula found in the Carnegie Hall Digital Library. *
Why Music Literacy? One need not be able to read and write to make music. Linguistic Literacy Music Literacy • Those who are illiterate are DEPENDENT upon others; only oral – aural communication; • Being able to read and write allows us to function in society; • Those who are illiterate are DEPENDENT upon others; only oral – aural communication. • Ability to read and write music notation makes for an independent musician. – Becomes an independent creator and learner of stories, now able to communicate across space and time. Don P. Ester – The restrictions on communicating and learning are removed; horizons can expand beyond previous limits. – EMPOWER not ENABLE
• Process of learning music is much the same as learning language. – Listened to language-even in womb; surrounded by conversation; became acculturated to it; – Tried to imitate; must pass through ‘babble’ before imitation; – Began to think in it; words and phrases began to have meaning; – Began to improvise in the language; engage in conversation; developed ability to think and speak – Learned to read and write; • Language development and achievement would have been affected if any of the steps had been skipped.
• Process of learning music: – Listen and absorb a wide variety of music; became acculturated to it; – Must pass through ‘babble’ stage before accurate imitation; – Audiate or think in it; hear and comprehend in one’s mind; awareness of underlying tonality and meter; complex process; – Improvise in the language; engage in conversation; develop ability to think and accurately perform; – Learn to read and write;
Audiation—Thinking Sound Inner Hearing • The ability to hear the music internally, provides the foundation for comprehensive music literacy. • “We should read music in the same way that an educated adult will read a book: in silence, but imagining the sound. ” ~Zoltán Kodály
Music Literacy • Ability to translate notation into vocal sound (reading) and sound into notation (notating). – Singing voice is the fundamental instrument for all musicians. • “If you can sing it, you can hear it; if you can hear it, you can sing it”. – Ability to sight-read notation on any instrument is an important and valuable skill. However, being able to press the correct keys on an instrument in response to notation does not confirm that the performer can audiate the music. – “To teach a child an instrument without first giving him preparatory training and without developing singing, reading and dictating to the highest level along with the playing is to build upon sand. ”~ Zoltán Kodály – DECODING vs LITERACY
Music is an aural art. • Sound – Hear, sing/chant through imitation before reading and writing • Sign – Sound + verbal association (syllable) • Symbol – Visual representation of the sound/sign • Theory – Give principles and theory only after practice and as they become relevant “Action will remove the doubt that theory cannot solve. ” – Petryl Hsieh You can spend your whole life thinking and theorizing, but it is only through action that you gain clarity. Theory can only take you so far. When you actually start taking action, things are much different than in theory.
Vocal Pitch Exercises Available at http: //www. oup. com/us/krueger
Music Educator must…. . • be committed to improving the literacy level; • communicate enthusiastically the importance of music literacy; • believe in your students’ ability to learn to read, write and audiate; • develop a carefully sequenced instructional approach that includes specific teaching strategies built on a foundation of current research and learning theory. – Usable at all levels (K-Collegiate) and in any setting (Elementary, General Music, Secondary/Collegiate Instrumental and Choral Rehearsals, Collegiate Aural-skills Courses). – Must be taught in Methods Courses.