- Slides: 64
Brainstorm Ancient Egypt • What words or phrase come to mind when you think of Ancient Egypt? • Where does your past knowledge come from?
Egypt *Egyptian society retained the same basic for over 3, 000 years!
The ancient Egyptians were responsible for some of the greatest monuments ever built. Think of the Great Pyramid and the Sphinx, in Giza. They’re also responsible for one lesser known construction feat, also in Giza: the laying of a 4, 600 -year-old paved road, believed to be the world’s oldest paved road. The seven-and-a-half-mile stretch connected a quarry in the Egyptian desert to waterways that shipped basalt blocks to monument sites along the Nile. The road, about six-and-a-half feet wide, was built with sandstone and limestone slabs. Geologists estimate that logs were laid across the stone to make travel easier in the desert.
Epic of Gilgamesh Ra and his Children
The Nile: “great river” http: //www. youtube. c om/user/Rhino. Africa. Sa faris? v=j. TX 7 S 6 np_F 4
Current Population Density of Egypt Compare the current demography of Egypt to where the Ancient Egyptian empire was located. What do you notice? Why do you think there may be a correlation between the past and present? How might Geography continue to impact Egyptians?
The Impact of Geography 1. From the map of Ancient Egypt, what conclusions can you draw about the importance of the Nile to Egyptians? Evidence? (Use SPECFIC SUPPORTING DETAILS)
Impact of Geography • What did the Nile give the people of Ancient Egypt? • Natural Barriers?
The Nile • The River Nile is the longest river in the world. It starts its 6, 650 km (4, 130 miles) journey from Lake Victoria beside Jinja town in Uganda to the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt.
Impact of Geography Benefits Drawbacks
Impact of Geography Benefits Drawbacks • The natural barriers of Egypt + why they are important?
Religion in Ancient Egypt Impact of Religion Topics for Discussion: • The Afterlife – Significance – Process of getting there • Religion as a reflection of daily life • Gods Major Terms and Religious Concepts • Divine Kingship (Pharaohs) – Both king and gods • Mummification – Preservation of bodies through the slow drying of the remains • Ka, Ba and Ahk (elements of the deceased soul) – Ka – spiritual body – Physical body requires proper mummification to preserve the Ka
Religion in Ancient Egypt – The Basics • Omnipresent divine presence (the divine & world inseparable) • Gods (Polytheistic) – Many associated w/ heavenly bodies or natural forces • Ex: Sun the source of life = Sun god through progressive stages becomes Amon-Re • Ex: The Osiris/ Isis Myth The flood of the Nile and the new life it brought Myths relating to Death and Rebirth Egyptian religious view of death and the afterlife
The Afterlife • Definition – a perfect existence in an ideal Egypt – referred to as “The Field of Rushes” or “Field of Offerings” • Prior to the Afterlife all Egyptians go to The Underworld – Land of dangers and tests/ judgments • Preparation for the Afterlife – Tombs = Residences for the Afterlife – Instructions = The Book of the Dead – Funerary Objects = food, games, furniture… dependent on your social status
Introduction and The Land of the Dead Readings Introduction • Define: The three essential elements of every living person • Define: the Book of the dead • Define: “spell” – (as the Egyptians would understand it) • What was the difference between Egyptian dwelling and tombs? Why was there such a striking difference? The Land of the Dead • Create a depiction of Se. Osiris and Setna’s travels. • Define the Afterlife • Why does Se-Osiris wish that the poor man’s fate is his father’s fate? (Explain)
Journey to the Afterlife… The Underworld (The Duat – vast area under the Earth, realm of the god Osiris) Life in Egypt – time to prepare for the Afterlife Death Land of the Gods “Field of Reeds” Pharaohs Everyone Else The devourer
The Duat • The Underworld “the Land of the Dead” Characteristics
3 Kingdoms of Egypt Old Kingdom- Pyramid Age 2660 -2180 B. C • Idea of Pharaoh as a god comes into existence. • Pharaoh had absolute power over all Egyptians, he was the source of law, land water. • Divides empire into provinces, appoints governors to help him rule. • Jobs of governors------ Tax collection, building projects, irrigation systems, administers of justice. • During this time hieroglyphics were improved, as were engineering skills. • Pyramids were built to house the body and Ka of the Pharaoh. First Illness • Heavy taxes to pay for pyramids and a period of drought weakened the rule of the pharaohs. • Pharaohs lost control for approximately 150 yrs. Governors took control of their areas and acted as kings.
The Building of the Pyramids Main Topic – how does the geography of ancient Egypt help form the culture of the Egyptians? • Purpose • Construction • Characteristics of structures • Characteristics of society
Tomb Raiders… Your Quest… • Learn more about the tombs of the pharaohs and how geography impacted the Egyptians belief in the afterlife.
Tomb Exploration Web Field Trip Giza (Old Kingdom) • Observations: – Geography – – Construction – Questions: Compare the Old and The New Kingdom http: //www. pbs. org/wgbh/nova/an cient/explore-ancient-egypt. html
Build your own Afterlife Eternity. Travel. com What do we do? • We give the discerning, God(s), fearing ancient Egyptian consumer the tools and information to plan for a safe, speedy, comfortable trip to the afterlife. Here on Eternity. Travel. com, you can: – rent or buy the perfect tomb – schedule reliable mummification services – purchase a quality mummy case – and order all the necessary Eternity Extras • … all in a few easy steps, with no lines or waiting! How does it work: The pharaoh has given you 3300 debens to spend on burial preparations. Just follow our four easy steps to purchase the services and items you need for your afterlife journey. But, remember: the dangers of the underworld are ever present, so read carefully and plan your journey wisely! All sales final — no returns! We cannot be held responsible for grave plundering, river flooding or sand erosion, or for physical or spiritual distress resulting from evil spells, lakes of fire, poisonous snakes, eternal limbo, etc. Unused debens are non-transferable and are not considered legal tender in the afterlife. • http: //www. m os. org/quest/af terlife. php
Build your own Afterlife Task: 1. Read the Mo. S’s description of the Afterlife and what you need to bring with you. 2. Book your Afterlife 3. Justify your spending habits: Questions: • Why was preparing for the Afterlife so important? – Artifact: – Reason for bringing to Afterlife: v How did your Afterlife turn out? Why? • Who was able to get to the Afterlife? • What were some dangers that could prevent you from getting to the Afterlife?
Middle Kingdom-2080 -1640 B. C. -Age of the Common Man. Major accomplishment • Common people gained the right to mummification. • Drained the Nile Delta. • Added thousands of new acres of farmland. • Built huge dikes to channel water for irrigation. • Dug a canal connecting the Nile to the Red Sea. • Increased the flow of trade in the region. • Built temples at Luxor and Karnak. • Trade expeditions were sent to neighboring lands. • Capital moved from Memphis to Thebes. Second Illness • • • Around 1640 B. C. civil wars and infighting left Egypt weak and vulnerable to outside forces. A people known today as the Hyksos rose up and over threw the ruling class in the Delta region. Hyksos ruled for approximately 70 yrs. Taught Egyptians new skills-Military skills- bronze weapons, horse drawn chariots more powerful bows. Non military skills- new kind of cattle, better potters wheel, new fruits and vegetables. Pharaoh of Upper Egypt kicked them out and restored Egyptian rule. 1570
Who were the Hyksos “foreign rulers” Viewpoints on the Hyksos “conquest” • “northern hordes “ – A swift invasion from the north through Palestine and Egypt using chariots to conquer OR • a “creeping conquest” – a gradual infiltration of migrating nomads or seminomads who either slowly took over control of the country piecemeal or by a swift coup d’etat You Decide…. Entering Egypt
Thesis Statements Position + Argument 1, Argument 2 and Argument 3. Northern Invaders Creeping Conquest
How to construct an Introductory Paragraph 1. Background/ Introductory Sentence 2. Restate the Issue/ Topic 3. *Thesis Statement
New Kingdom 1570 -1075 B. C. -Empire Age- During this time Egyptian pharaohs set out to extend their borders and conquer their neighbors. They used technology and tactics learned from the Hyksos. It is also during this time Egypt will grow to its greatest size. Major Accomplishments- • Professional army is established to spread Egyptian control. • First female pharaoh rules. (Hatsepshut) • Under Thutmose III Egypt reaches its greatest size. Stretching from Kush in the south to Syria in the north. • First written peace treaty is made between Hittites and Egypt. • Massive temples and palaces are built. • Hebrews are lead by Moses out of Egypt into the Sinai. Fall of Egypt • As time passed Egypt faced attacks from all directions. These attacks slowly drained the power and wealth of the pharaohs. • Eventually Egypt fell to the Nubians in the south.
Growth of the Egyptian Empire http: //. gogrolier. com/atlas? id=mh 00138
Differences between Kingdoms Religious Developments OR
New Kingdom Tombs
Culture in Ancient Egypt Religion Government Trade/ Economy Philosophy of life Essentials
Relate to Geography Can you make any connections to geography? (Ask yourself if the different aspects of geography have in any way shaped or influenced the topic you have read about)
Papyrus The Method of Papyrus Paper Production - The stalks of the papyrus plant are harvested. - Next the green skin of the stalk is removed and the inner pith is taken out and cut into long strips. The strips are then pounded and soaked in water for 3 days until pliable. • The strips are then cut to the length desired and laid horizontally on a cotton sheet overlapping about 1 millimeter. Other strips are laid vertically over the horizontal strips resulting in the criss-cross pattern in papyrus paper. Another cotton sheet is placed on top. • The sheet is put in a press and squeezed together, with the cotton sheets being replaced until all the moisture is removed. • Finally, all the strips are pressed together forming a single sheet of papyrus paper.
Egyptian Advances in Learning • Written records – Scribes used hieroglyphics as an early system of writing with symbols. – Afterward, more refined systems would be found with Hieratic and Demotic systems. • Why might they have wanted to keep written records?
Rosetta Stone • While Papyrus was a popular method of writing, important documents were still inscribed into stone. What do you notice about the stone? What does it say about HOW the stone ended up being useful? Contained hieroglyphics, demotic script, and Greek. French Scholar Jean Champollion was able to decipher it because of this (because we know Greek).
How did the Rosetta Stone help historians understand Egyptian culture and history?
King Tutankhamen What can we learn by Studying King Tut?
Egyptian Social Organization People were ranked according to their jobs Pharaoh Government officials, high priests Merchants, Scribes, & Artisans Majority of People: Farmers* Peasants, Slaves, etc. *Most were farmers, and in the offseason, they would help with major building projects. In the New Kingdom, the social structure became a bit more fluid.
How is this structure Similar and Different from the Fertile Crescent Civilizations? Similar Different Pharaoh Government officials, high priests Merchants, Scribes, & Artisans Majority of People: Farmers* Peasants, Slaves, etc.
Accomplishments: Science & Mathematics Examples: • Doctors performed surgeries, prescribed medicines that are still used today for various purposes. – Understanding of the importance of Hygiene (washing & shaving) to stay healthy – non-invasive surgery, setting of bones & basic medicines – Recorded medical information on Papyrus • Priest-astronomers studied the heavens, mapped out constellations, created a 12 -month calendar with 30 days and 5 extra days. • Math developed to help redraw the boundaries of the constantly flooding Nile River.
Accomplishments: Arts & Literature Examples: • Statues, wall paintings in tombs, carvings on temples. These often show daily life. • Gods and pharaohs are always displayed as bigger and thus more important. • Despite body position, eyes usually aimed at viewer (creepy!). • Egyptian literature: usually detailed prayers to the gods, love poems, or practical writings like that of Ptah-hotep or students.
Art and Literature
Art and Literature
Sources videos sources • http: //dsc. discovery. com/vi deos/discovery-atlas-egyptthe-nile-then-and-now. html • http: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=KUC 2 F 0 hf 5 Mc • http: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=g 5 z. CUPG-mfk • http: //www. pbs. org/wgbh/ nova/egypt/ • http: //historylink 101. net/eg ypt_1/index. htm
Tr av el Do w n th e Ni le
Question #1 • What natural barriers protected Egypt?
Question 2 • What stone was discovered that allowed historians to decipher Egyptian Hieroglyphics and what was on this stone that made this possible? What was the name of the man who deciphered the Egyptian Language?
Question 3 • What were the causes of the first Illness and Egypt and what actions allowed Egyptians to get out of this illness and enter the Middle Kingdom?
Question 4 • Who was the ruler that attempted to introduce monotheism to Egypt and what was the outcome?
Question 5 • Who were the Hyksos and what are the two competing theories for how they came to Egypt?
Question 6 • Who did the Egyptians write the first peace treaty with? Why did they write this treaty?
Question 7 • Define Maat and Ka and explain how these two concepts influenced Egyptian religious beliefs and culture.
Question 8 • Who are the following Gods and what was there place in Egyptian culture? – Osiris – Isis – Horace – Seth or Set
Question 9 • What did Howard Carter discover and why was it so significant?
Question 10 • How was Egyptian Society Organized? How did this social structure change throughout Egyptian history?
Question 11 • How were some major accomplishments of the Egyptians? (at least 3)
Question 12 • Which Pharaoh built the first true pyramid and why did he build it?
Question 13 • What was Papyrus and how was it used in Egyptian society? http: //www. dailymotion. com/video/x 8752 c_s aturday-night-live-king-tut_fun