- Slides: 25
Throughout much of its history, Korea feared three potential enemies: the empire of China, the Mongols to the north of China, and the empire of Japan
Brief Background Slow to adopt modern ways, Korea was poorly prepared to protect itself from the imperialist Japan in the late 1800 s In 1910, Japan completed its takeover by deposing the Korean emperor and declaring Korea to be a part of Japan From 1910 -1945, Korea was under Japanese rule
Brief Background Japan lost control of Korea during the last few months of WWII When the war ended, Soviet troops occupied the northern part, while the US occupied the southern As a temporary measure, they agreed to recognize the 38 th parallel as the dividing line between their areas
Causes The SU helped a Communist government take power in the north with its capital at Pyongang Kim Il-Sung 1912 -1994
Causes A non-Communist government was formed in the south after UN-sponsored elections were held, with its capital at Seoul. Syngman Rhee 1875 - 1965
Causes Both sides thought they were the rightful government of all of Korea Soviet forces left NK by Dec 1948, but military advisors stayed. They also provided NK with weapons and tanks, making NK more powerful than SK American forces left SK by July 1949, but continued to offer economic and military assistance.
Causes Kim Il-Sung made repeated requests to Moscow to be allowed to attack SK In 1950, Stalin gave in but warned Kim that if the US became involved, Soviet forces would not step in and help JUNE 1950: NK troops begin a massive invasion of SK
War US felt they had to act if they were prove they were serious about Containment The UN denounced the invasion and authorized UN members to give military aid to SK Many nations took part in the military expedition to rescue SK The US provided the largest number of troops The combined UN forces were led by General Douglas Mac. Arthur, chosen by Truman because of his dignified war record and experience in East Asia
Stage 1 The Korean War began in the predawn darkness of June 25, 1950 as Kim Il Sung's heavily armed and well-trained North Korean army crossed the 38 th parallel. North Korea began hitting South Korean positions along the 150 -mile width of the peninsula, shortly followed by invasion forces of more than 90, 000 troops and 150 Soviet-built tanks that struck in smoothly coordinated assaults into South Korea.
Stage 1 By the night of June 28, Seoul had fallen and the SK forces were in disarray. The United Nations passed a resolution recommending that they give as much assistance to the SK as needed to repel the NK and restore international peace and security
Stage 2 July 5: The first battle between the UN troops and NK saw the Americans not doing as well as they expected. Unable to slow the enemy advance, the US and SK fought desperately to delay operations, buying time with blood as more American units were rushed to Korea. By the end of July, NK had pushed the UN forces to the southeast corner of the peninsula, where they dug in around the port of Pusan.
Stage 2 On July 27, a "grim-faced and businesslike" Mac. Arthur visited Eighth Army commander Walton Walker. Mac. Arthur told Walker, "There will be no Dunkirk in this command. To retire to Pusan will be unacceptable. " Gen. Walker gave the "stand or die" order, and over the next six weeks a desperate, bloody struggle ensued as the NK threw everything they had at US and SK forces in an effort to gain complete control over Korea.
Stage 3 With what is widely considered the crowning example of his military genius, Mac. Arthur completely changed the course of the war overnight by ordering an amphibious invasion at the port of Inchon, near Seoul. The Chinese Communists, having studied Mac. Arthur's tactics in World War II, warned NK to expect such an attack. Still, they were not prepared.
Stage 3 The US quickly gained control of Inchon, recaptured Seoul within days, and cut the NK supply lines. US and SK forces broke out of the Pusan Perimeter and chased the NK north. On September 27, Mac. Arthur received permission to pursue the enemy into North Korea. SK forces crossed the 38 th parallel on October 1, opening a fateful new chapter in the conflict.
Stage 4 Despite warnings from China that "American intrusion into North Korea would encounter Chinese resistance, " Mac. Arthur continued to push north. On October 25, however, things turned ominous. The Chinese army, which had been massing north of the Yalu River after secretly slipping into North Korea, struck with considerable force. After suffering setbacks, the U. N. forces stabilized their lines by November 5, only to watch the Chinese withdraw northward as quickly as they had struck.
Stage 4 Mac. Arthur began to press the US gov to take the fight into China. The US gov did not want entry into China, so Mac. Arthur launched a great offensive toward the end of November, which he optimistically hoped would end the war in Korea and "get the boys home by Christmas. " It proved a terrible miscalculation.
Stage 5 Mac. Arthur's "all-out offensive" to the Yalu had barely begun when the Chinese struck on the night of November 25. 200, 000 Chinese troops shattered the US forces. On November 28, a shaken Mac. Arthur said, "We face an entirely new war. "
Stage 5 Mac. Arthur's men fought courageously and skillfully just to avoid annihilation, as they were pushed back down the peninsula. Seoul changed hands yet again on January 5. But under the able and energetic leadership of General Matthew Ridgway, who took over the Eighth Army, the US retreat ended about 70 miles below Seoul.
Stage 6 Beginning January 15, Ridgway led the UN in a slow advance northward, in what his troops began to call the "meatgrinder. " Inflicting heavy casualties on the Chinese and North Koreans, the U. N. rerecaptured Seoul on March 15, and crossed the 38 th parallel into NK on March 31.
Stage 6 In the meantime, General Mac. Arthur had been steadily pushing the US gov to remove the restrictions on his forces. Truman declined to give Mac. Arthur what he wanted for fear of widening the war, and then fired Mac. Arthur, who had been publicly challenging him for months
The End of the War Although Mac. Arthur's dismissal ignited a political firestorm, most historians have agreed that Truman had little choice. Whether or not his proposals would have ended the war (or started World War III), they probably would have avoided the stalemate, which lasted for another two years. An armistice was signed on July 27, 1953, under President Eisenhower.
Effects Up to 3 mil Koreans were killed, wounded, or missing 54, 000 Americans were killed Americans at home questioned why so many were killed with so little results US signed peace treaty with Japan in 1951, hoping to maintain balance of power Relations with China were poisoned, leading to a diplomatic standoff that lasted over 20 years
Effects The Korean War militarized the Cold War US defense spending rose 33% Western Powers rearmed, Germany was permitted to rearm The “red panic” at home was intensified First war in which whites and blacks fought together Permanent Mobilization: over a million Americans became stationed around the world Military-Industrial complex: links created between scientific and corporate communities with military