- Slides: 31
“Life is really simple, but we insist on making it complicated. ” - Confucius In 2015, more people were killed from injuries caused by taking a selfie than by shark attacks.
The Korean War, The Forgotten War
www. askasia. org/teachers/map. php? no=41
The Beginning n In 1910, the Korean Peninsula was annexed by Jap. , who ruled it as a colony until the end of WWII, when Jap. was stripped of its territorial possessions. n During WWII (Yalta and Potsdam), the Allies agreed that Korea would be temporarily occupied: 1945: Russ. occupies N. Korea to the 38 th parallel; the U. S. in S. Korea n n The occupation was to end after free elections for a Korean gov.
www. kutztown. edu/. . . /asiaatlas/nk/koreawar. html
The Beginning n n n By 1948, 2 separate govs. had emerged in Korea, both of which claimed to be legal ruler of the country: N. Korea: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea; Pyongyang is the capital. (S. U. ) S. Korea: Republic of Korea; Seoul is the capital. (Am. ) 1948: Soviet troops withdraw from N. Korea. 1949: Am. troops withdraw from S. Korea
Kim Il-sung vs. Syngman Rhee www. nndb. com/people/028/000028941/
Kim vs. Rhee: Struggle for Korea 1 st Steps Toward War n n n S. Korean President Syngman Rhee (democratic) and N. Korean General Secretary Kim Il-Sung (communist) each sought to reunite the peninsula under his own system. N. Korea: With large numbers of outdated Soviet tanks and heavy arms, the N. Koreans were able to escalate the ongoing border clashes and go on the offensive S. Korea: Had only limited American backing and far fewer options. Am. at this time believed that the Communist bloc was unified and that N. Korea was acting as a pawn of the S. U. In order to avoid a direct war with the S. U. , Am. portrayed the conflict in the context of international aggression rather than a civil war (U. N. support).
Kim vs. Rhee: Struggle for Korea 1 st Steps Toward War n n n Despite Am. fears of fighting a war with the S. U. , Stalin himself was reluctant to aid N. Korea in a war despite being Communist because: The N. Korean military was under prepared Stalin did not want to risk fighting a war with Am. mid 1949 -50: In order to gain Soviet support, the N. Korean military mobilized and restructured along the Soviet lines. 1950: The decision for war could no longer be postponed – Rhee, with the help of Am. , was suppressing communism and was slowing gaining power and popularity. Kim’s only option now for unifying the country is invasion; Stalin pledges aid.
North Korea Invades www. pbs. org/. . . /macarth ur/maps/koreatxt. html
North Korea Invades n n Similar to when Germ. invaded Poland, N. Korea invaded S. Korea under the guise a counter-attack: The North claimed Republic of Korea Army (ROK) troops under the “bandit traitor Syngman Rhee" had crossed the border first, and that Rhee would be arrested and executed. n June 25, 1950: 135, 000 N. Korean soldiers crossed the 38 th parallel behind a firestorm of artillery. n The North's well-planned attack achieved surprise and quick successes on the S. Korean targets of Kaesŏng, Chuncheon, Uijeongbu and Ongjin.
North Korea Invades n The S. Korean army had 65, 000 soldiers armed, trained, and equipped by the U. S. military, but they were deficient in armor and artillery; they also had no tanks, attack planes, or any antitank weapons. n Within days, the S. Korean army was in full retreat. n June 28: N. Korean troops reached Seoul, the capital of S. Korea. n However, N. Korea's hope for a quick surrender by the Rhee gov. and the reunification of the peninsula evaporated when Am. and the U. N. intervened and expanded the civil war into an international conflict.
The U. S. and the U. N. n n n The same day the war had officially begun (June 25), the U. N. immediately drafted UNSC Resolution 82, which called for: 1) All hostilities to end and N. Korea to withdraw to the 38 th Parallel 2) A U. N. Commission on Korea to be formed to monitor the situation and report to the Security Council. 3) All U. N. members to support the United Nations in achieving this, and refrain from providing assistance to the N. Korean authorities. This resolution was unanimously passed because to the S. U. ’s absence (no veto) due to their protest that China’s seat would not move to the new Communist gov. of China.
The U. S. and the U. N. n June 27, 1950: The U. N. votes to send aid to S. Korea – direct action would be taken by the U. S. and 15 other U. N. members including Brit. and Fr. n Despite the other countries involvement, the U. S. provided the bulk of the military assistance: 50% of the ground forces (S. Korea provided most of the remainder), 86% of the naval power, and 93% of the air power. Why? Policy of Containment (Truman Doctrine). n
U. S. Intervention
U. S. Intervention n Despite demobilization from WWII, the U. S. still had a sizeable force in Jap. under the command of Gen. Douglas Mac. Arthur, and it would be this force that would lead the counter-attack against N. Korea. n July 5: Am. fought for the first time at Osan and was defeated with heavy losses and was forced to retreat; the victorious North Korean forces advanced southwards. n August: S. Korean and U. S. forces had been driven back into a small area in the southeast corner of the Korean peninsula around the city of Pusan. n September: Only the area around Pusan (Pusan Perimeter), about 10% of the Korean peninsula, was still in coalition hands; the situation was desperate.
Battle of the Pusan Perimeter n n n August 1: The U. S. 8 th Army issued an operational directive to all UN ground forces in Korea for their planned w/drawal E. of the Naktong R. The intent was to draw the line on retreating and hold off the Korean People's Army (N. Korea) while the U. S. Army could build up its forces and wage a counteroffensive. The N. Koreans had 4 possible avenues of advance leading to Pusan that could result in the defeat of U. S. and ROK forces, and in August they tried them all simultaneously.
Battle of the Pusan Perimeter n In order to defend their position, the U. S. and UN forces would move their forces from one N. Korean penetration to the next. n Throughout Aug. -Sept. 1950, the U. S. , ROK, and UN forces were able to halt the N. Korean advance; the Pusan Perimeter Line would hold. n It would be from this line and small area of Korea that the U. S, ROK, and UN forces would launch their counter-attack.
Battle of Inchon: Operation Chromite n n n Immediately after the Battle of Pusan Perimeter, Am. bombers began bombing campaigns in N. Korea: American bombers knocked out the main supply dumps and eliminated oil refineries and seaports that handled imports such as military supplies to starve North Korean forces. The bombers also knocked out road, rail lines, bridges, and cities. n The North Korean forces were spread out over the peninsula, and the destruction caused by American bombers prevented needed supplies from reaching N. Korean forces in the S. n During these bombings, Am. and the UN began landing troops and supplies in Pusan to launch the counter-attack.
Battle of Inchon: Operation Chromite n In the face of the overwhelming reinforcements, the N, Korean forces found themselves undermanned and with weak logistical support; they also lacked the substantial naval and air support of the Ams. n It was at this point that Gen. Douglas Mac. Arthur called for a surprise invasion on the port city of Inchon located on Korea’s W. coast and behind N. Korea’s lines. This invasion was divided into two stages: 1) A large amphibious attack on Inchon 2) Once Inchon was secure, Am. and ROK forces would break out of the Pusan Perimeter and advance N. n n n
General Douglas Mac. Arthur
Battle of Inchon: Operation Chromite n Sept. 15, 1950: Due to reconnaissance by Am. guerrillas, misinformation and extensive shelling prior to the invasion, the N. Korean military had few soldiers stationed in Inchon, so the U. S. forces met only light resistance when they landed. n When the N. Koreans tried to send more troops it was too late, U. S. and UN forces had secured the beaches and city of Inchon. n Within six weeks, the UN forces had rescued the S. Korean capital of Seoul, pushed the N. Koreans out of S. Korea, and had advanced into N. Korea, reaching the Yalu River at the Chinese border.
Lt. Baldomero Lopez of the Marine Corps is shown scaling a seawall after landing on Red Beach. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez was killed after smothering a live grenade with his body. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.
American Troops Recovering the City of Seoul