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TAXONOMY Classification of Living Things
Living Things l l l obtain and use energy. Motile-move around, plants move toward sun grow and develop. Made of DNA reproduce. l l l Limited life spanseventually wear out and die respond to their environment. Able to repair injuries adapt to their environment. Made of cells
Taxonomy l - the science of grouping organisms on the basis of their similar characteristics.
l The first taxonomic system was proposed by the Greek philosopher Aristotle around 350 B. C. He divided things into two groups, plants and animals
• A Swedish botanist named Carolus Linnaeus developed the modern system of classification in the 1700's which is based on similarities in structure and evolutionary relationships.
System of Classification • • l needed to study the variety of life in an organized, systematic way (standard) based on organisms' similarities of: • structure • fossil record (evolutionary history) • genetic make up • life-cycle characteristics • embryonic development • biochemical Groupings based on evolution--present life developed from earlier forms
Naming System l An organism is known by its common name, the name given to it by the people of an area. For example, killer whale or harp seal. However, these animals are known by other names in other areas of the world. Also, some names are misleading to their classification, as starfish and jellyfish are not really fish. Linnaeus developed the idea of giving each organism a scientific name, a standard name that is accepted by all scientists around the world.
l The genus and species are the two parts of the scientific name. The system of using two names is called binomial nomenclature. The names are in Latin, which was considered the "language of science" in Linnaeus' time. So the killer whale is known as Orcinus orca and the harp seal is known as Phoca groenlandica. Scientific names are generally written in italics with the genus capitalized and the species beginning in a lower case letter.
CLASSIFICATION CATAGORIES l kingdom - the broadest classification category
phylum - (plural, phyla) each kingdom is separated into these major groups
class - related orders
order - related families
family - related genera
genus - (plural, genera) the first word, in the scientific name e. g. "Homo" in the name "Homo sapien" or Felis leo or Felis tigres
species - (plural, species) the second word in the scientific name, most specific NOT capitalized, lower case, in the binomial naming system, e. g. "sapien" in the name "Homo sapien" or
Homo or Felis-genus sapian, tigres or leo-species
King Philip Counted Out Five Golden Slippers or-King Philip Came Over For Green Soup
All living things can be divided into one of five different kingdoms, or groups: l http: //teachers. oregon. k 12. wi. us/hanson/ moneran. htm
Monera A. One-celled organisms B. Cells have no membrane bound organelles or nucleus C. Reproduce by splitting in two D. Absorb nutrients from outside their bodies E. Some monerans cause diseases, but others are helpful to people F. Examples: bacteria Protista A. Most are one-celled, but some have many cells B. Cells have a membrane around the nucleus C. Some get nutrients and energy by eating other organisms D. Some get energy from the sun, and nutrients from the water around them E. Most reproduce bysplitting in two F. Examples are paramecium, amoeba, and kelp Fungi A. Most are many-celled and some are one-celled organisms B. Cells have a membrane around the nucleus C. Get nutrients and energy by absorbing/ digesting the surface they live on D. Most reproduce by spores E. Examples are yeast, mushrooms, bread molds, and lichens
Plantae Animilia A. Many-celled organisms B. Cells have a membrane around the nucleus, contain chlorophyll, and have cell walls C. Get energy from the sun and take in nutrients from their surroundings D. Most reproduce from seeds; some reproduce from other special parts E. Examples are ferns, trees, grasses, and bushes A. Many-celled organisms B. Cells have a membrane around the nucleus C. Get nutrients and energy by eating other organisms D. Reproduce with eggs. Some eggs develop inside the mother's body, and some develop outside the mother's body. E. Examples are bears, fish, frogs, butterflies, and starfish