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Classification- the scientific process of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities Taxonomy – the science of naming and classifying organisms
Why classify? • Allows scientists to organize large amounts of information so that it is easy to find and understand. • Gives a system for comparing groups with each other. • Uses a common language for less confusion.
How are organisms grouped? • Physical traits • Evolutionary history (if the organisms share a common ancestor) • Genetics (common DNA)
Binomial Nomenclature • Carolus Linnaeus developed a system. • Means “two names” and “list of names”. • The modern system of classifying and naming organisms using two names. • Uses scientific names instead of common names.
Organisms are Classified into 8 Levels Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
• Genus and species are the two scientific names.
An easy mnemonic to remember the levels! Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species Dumb kids play catch on freeways get squished.
Domains and Kingdoms The three Domains are • Eubacteria • Archaebacteria • Eukarya
Unicellular – organisms made of one cell Multicellular – organisms made from many cells Prokaryotic – cells with no nucleus Eukaryotic – cells with a nucleus Autotroph – makes food Heterotroph – eats food
Kingdoms of Living Things Domain Kingdom Archaebacteria Eubacteria Eukarya Protists Eukarya Fungi Eukarya Plants Eukarya Bacteria Cell Type (prokaryotic or eukaryotic) Cell Surface (cell wall or not) Body Type (unicellular or multicellular Nutrition (autotrophic or heterotrophic Examples
The 6 Kingdoms
Archaebacteria • Unicellular • Prokaryotic • Can be autotroph or heterotroph • Have a cell wall • Live in extreme environments; very salty, hot, cold, acidic
Eubacteria • Unicellular • Prokaryotic • Can be autotroph or heterotroph • Have a cell wall • “True” bacteria or regular bacteria
Protists • Mostly unicellular • Eukaryotic • Heterotroph or Autotroph • Most do not have a cell wall • Amoeba, algae, kelp
Fungi • Multicellular (except yeast) • Eukaryotic • Heterotroph • Have cell walls • Mushrooms, yeast, mold
Plants • • • Multicellular Eukaryotic Autotroph Have cell walls Grass, trees, wheat
Animals • • • Multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotroph No cell walls Fish, birds, insects
Quick Check 1. The science of naming and classifying organisms is called ____. A. binomial nomenclature B. taxonomy C. classification D. domains
Quick Check 2. Why do scientist classify organisms. A. B. C. D. To organize large amounts of information To make comparing easier To use a common language for less confusion All of the above
Quick Check 3. The system of classifying organisms and giving them two names is called ____. A. classificaiton B. domain C. binomial nomenclature D. autotrophic
Quick Check 4. The scientific name for each organisms is made up of its ___ and ___ levels. A. genus, species B. domain, kingdom C. phylum, order D. family, species
Quick Check 5. ____ cells are cells that have a nuclues. A. Autotrophic B. Heterotrophic C. Prokaryotic D. Eukaryotic
Quick Check 6. The two domains that have prokaryotic cells (bacteria) are ____. A. Eukarya and Prokarya B. Archea and Eubacteria C. Eukarya and Archea D. Eubacteria and Prokarya