- Slides: 46
Classification – Classification is a system of organizing things based on similarities and differences
Classification of things into two categories THINGS NON LIVING
7 A Signs of life – The meaning of life How do we identify living from non living? There are seven essential life processes. To remember these processes meet our little blue woman MS. R. NERG… What do all the letters in her name stand for?
7 A Signs of life - The meaning of life M = MOVEMENT Living things are able to move about. Animals move from place to place. Plants move by responding to light. S = SENSITIVITY Living things notice and react to changes in their surroundings. They can respond to light, heat, sound, taste, sight or touch. R = RESPIRATION Living things need energy to carry out the functions that keep them alive.
7 A Signs of life - The meaning of life N = NUTRITION Living things need to take in food. E = EXCRETION Living things have to get rid of unwanted waste products. R = REPRODUCTION Living things produce offspring. G = GROWTH Living things grow, increasing in size and complexity.
The Classification Living Things All living things are classified into five main groups called kingdoms. living things plants animals fungi Bacteria (prokaryotes) Protoctists Most living things belong to the animal kingdom or the plant kingdom.
CLASSIFYING ANIMALS Animals Vertebrates (possess a backbone) Birds Fish Amphibians Invertebrates (no backbone) Reptiles mammals Worm-like Not wormlike Has jointed legs
Animals Vertebrates Mammals Fish Invertebrates Cnidarians Flatworms True worms Reptiles Molluscs Amphibians Echinoderms Birds Arthropods
Vertebrates • These are animals with a backbone.
Mammals Vertebrates Have body hair or fur Have mammary glands that produce milk Warm blooded
Fish Vertebrates Live in water Breathe with gills Streamlined bodies Have cartilage or bony skeleton Cold blooded Mostly lay eggs
Reptiles Vertebrates Have dry, scaly skins Egg laying Breathe with lungs Cold blooded
Amphibians Vertebrates Moist skin Lay their eggs in water Larvae have gills and live in water Adults have lungs and live on land Cold blooded
Birds Vertebrates Have feathers and wings Lay eggs with hard shells Breathe with lungs Warm blooded
Invertebrates • These are animals without a backbone
Invertebrates Cnidarians Hollow bodied Mouth is the only body opening and is surrounded by tentacles Uses sting cells to paralyse prey
Invertebrates Flatworms Flat thin bodies Digestive system has only one opening Animals are both male and females Mostly parasites
Invertebrates True Worms Rounded bodied Bodies made of segments
Invertebrates Molluscs Not segmented Body in three continuous parts with head, body and foot Have one or two shells
Invertebrates Echinoderms Spiny skinned Body in five parts Central mouth with respiratory gills
Invertebrates Arthropods Crustaceans Hard exo-sekeleton on outside of body Has eyes and mouth Body divided into more than one segment Centipedes Arachnids Insects & Millipedes
Quiz – 1] Animals with a backbone are called ____ 2] Animals that can live on land in water ____ 3] ____ have wings and can fly. 4]Butterfly is an example of an ______ 5] ______ have shells 6]____ is sorting organisms into groups. 7]Living things are called ____ 8] A animal which can’t control its internal body temperature is _________ • 9] ____ have body divided into five parts. • 10] The basic unit of classification is ______. • • •
CLASSIFYING PLANTS Plants Flowering plants Conifers Nonflowering plants Ferns Mosses
Plant Classification Plants are living organisms that cannot move around. Most plants make their own food through photosynthesis. Vascular Tissues are similar to animals blood vessels. In plants they are called xylem and phloem, they transport nutrients and water to cells in the plant. Seeds contain a baby plant (embryonic plant) the outer covering provides safety and nutrients to the seedling. Spores are a small single celled reproductive structure normally spread by non-flowering plants like fungi.
Plant classification Mosses: They have simple leaves and shallow roots, with no proper vascular systems. The leaves are very small and are not covered with a waterproof, waxy cuticle layer. Mosses, Angiosperm and Lichen are often found in damp areas as they dry out easily. They reproduce using spores. Ferns: They have proper roots and stems, and leaf-like fronds. The leaves are not covered in a waterproof, waxy cuticle layer and so they dry out easily and are generally found in damp places. They do have a vascular system. They reproduce using spores. Conifers: They have vascular tissues. They are large plants with proper roots and stems and needle-shaped leaves with a waxy cuticle. They are good at surviving in dry or cold climates. They reproduce using seeds found in cones. Flowering Plants: They have vascular tissues. They have proper roots and stems and have flowers. Their leaves are large and flat and have a waxy cuticle. They reproduce using seeds found in fruits.
What is Non-Living things? • • • Non-Livings cannot reproduce Non-Livings cannot move by itself Non-Livings cannot grow Non-Livings cannot die Non-Livings do not need food, water and air • Unable to respond to stimuli • Do not get rid of waste
1 st example for non-living things books • Storybooks
2 nd example for non-living things game boys • Game boys
Classification of Elements in the periodic table The elements in the periodic table are classified into groups and periods because of the way they look and act.
CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY INTO NON-RENEWABLE AND RENEWABLE SOURCES
Constructing a key. we will try a simple sorting activity to organize some dogs into groups according to their similarities. . .
Divide the dogs into two groups Group A Group B We divide the dogs into groups by asking a question to which there is a yes or no answer. . . Is the dog large (above 65 cm)?
Large Dogs Small Dogs We can now divide each group down into further sub divisions. . .
What question could be used to divide the large dogs down into further groups? Does the dog have a brown and black coat? No white and grey coats Yes brown and black coats
Finally the groups can be divided down into individual dogs to which we can then give the names. What question has been used to separate these two dogs? Does the dog have curly hair? yes Airedale Terrier no Rotweiller
By asking questions that divide the dogs we can produce a key 1. Is the dog over 65 cm tall? If yes go to question 2 If no go to question 5 2. Does the dog have a brown and black coat? If yes go to question 3 If no go to question 4 3. Does the dog have a wooly coat? Yes… Airedale Terrier No…Rotweiller
Question 4 Does the tail curl upwards? Yes Akita No Old English sheepdog
Now complete the key, starting with question 5, for the small dogs. You can make your own questions up.
Question 5 Does the dog have a snub nose? Yes Go to question 6 No Go to question 7
Question 6 Does the dog have long hair? Yes Pekinese No Bulldog
Question 7 Does the dog have very long ears? Yes Basset hound No Dachsund
1. Tiger’s treefrog 4. Microhylid frog 7. Thampi’s torrent frog 2. Long-nosed treefrog 3. Rabb’s fringe-limbed treefrog 5. Montseny Brook newt 6. Sagalla caecilian 8. Mr Burns beaked toad 9. Raorchestes
Identifying Newly Discovered Amphibians Yes No Does it have legs? No Does it have a tail? Sagalla caecilian Yes Does it have an elongated nose? Is the skin rough and warty? No Montseny Brook newt Does it have very large eyes in relation to its head? Yes Yes No No Mr Burns beaked toad Long-nosed treefrog Does it have a stout, rounded body and short legs? Does it have webbed feet and large toepads? Yes No No Yes Microhylid frog Does it have stripes? Yes Tiger’s treefrog No Raorchestes Rabb’s fringe-limbed treefrog Thampi’s torrent frog