- Slides: 33
Classification of Living Things Taxonomy Video
All Living Things… Are classified by certain characteristics Are put into categories based on similarities and relationships to other living things Have a certain DOMAIN, KINGDOM, PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER, FAMILY, GENUS, and SPECIES that they belong to!
Did you know… That 1, 600, 000 species have been classified so far? That at least 1, 000 of these are insects? That it is believed that MANY others exist and just haven’t been discovered yet?
Why should we classify organisms?
Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names
Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists
Why should we classify organisms? Taxonomy: (Classification) The scientific discipline where scientists classify organisms and group them in a logical manner.
WHY CLASSIFY? To name organisms and group them in a logical manner
Modern Taxonomy Carolus von Linnaeus: Developed the basis for our modern classification system. “Father of Taxonomy”
Eukaryote vs. Prokaryote There are two domains: • Eukaryote- Nucleus (you are an eukaryote) • Prokaryote- NO nucleus (bacteria)
Eukaryote Cell wall of multi cellulose auto Eukaryote none hetero Prokaryote Archaea Cell wall uni Many types both Methanobacteria prokaryote Peptidoglycan cell wall uni both E. coli eukaryote Cell wall of chitin multi Hetero (Saprophyte) Lichen, yeast, mushrooms eukaryote Pectin or none Most uni both Algae, diatoms, amoebas multi
Levels of Taxonomy Most General (Most Inclusive) Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Memory Mneumonic Eukarya • Animalia • Chordata • Mammalia • Primata • Homindae • Homo • Sapien • Most Specific (Least Inclusive) Did King Phillip Come Over For Good Soup
Classification of Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear) Section 18 -1 Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Red fox Coral Abert squirrel snake KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos Go to Section: Sea star
Assigning Scientific Names Binomial Nomenclature - a two-word naming system Why? To eliminate the confusion that arises when people use common names
Why a Scientific Name? Using common names is confusing because many organisms may have several different common names… A COUGAR is also known as the mountain lion, puma, cougar OR Felis concolor
Binomial Nomenclature Two Part Scientific Name. Always written in italics. First word is capitalized and the second word is lowercased First Part = Genus Second Part = species Examples: Lepus arcticus (Arctic Hare) Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear) Ursus maritimus (Polar Bear) Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Panda Bear)
Binomial Nomenclature Which TWO are more closely related?
Classification of Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear) Section 18 -1 Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Red fox Coral Abert squirrel snake Sea star KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos Go to Do Ursus Section: arctos and Ursus maritimus belong to the same species?
Dichotomous Key (Biological Key) A tool to help identify unfamiliar organisms by going through a series of choices that leads the user to the correct name of the species. At each step of the process, the user is given two choices; each choice leads to another question until the species is identified.
Dichotomous Key 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Step 1 If fish shape is long and skinny then go to step 2 If fish shape is not long and skinny, then go to step 3 Step 5 If fish has spots, then go to step 6 If fish does not have spots, then go to step 7 Step 2 If fish has pointed fins, it is a trumpet fish If fish has smooth fins, it is a spotted moray eel Step 6 If fish has chin "whiskers, " it is a spotted goat fish If fish does not have chin "whiskers, " it is a band-tail puffer Step 3 If fish has both eyes on top of the head, then go to step 4 If fish has one eye on each side of the head, then go to step 5 Step 7 If fish has stripes, then go to step 8 If fish does not have stripes, it is a glassy sweeper Step 4 If fish has long whip-like tail, it is a spotted eagle ray If fish has short, blunt tail, it is a peacock flounder Step 8 If fish has a v-shaped tail, it is a squirrel fish If fish has a blunt tail, it is a glass-eye snapper
– Cladograms are diagrams that show the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
Phylogeny! Building “family” trees Closely related species are branches on the tree — coming from a common ancestor
Making a cladogram Place the derived character that ALL the organisms show at the very beginning. Place the organisms AFTER the derived characters that they show.
Hagfish CLADOGRAM Lizard Fish Mouse Pigeon Monkey salamander Feathers Fur & Mammary Glands Lungs Jaws Claws or Nails
Reading a CLADOGRAM – The characteristics listed below the line are called derived characters (traits) When the derived character appears above an organism, the organism lacks that derived character When the derived character appears below the organism, the organism possesses that derived character
EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION Besides physical characteristics, Biologists group organisms into categories that represent lines of: Phylogeny: The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms Cladogram: diagrams used to show the evolutionary relationship among a group of organisms Phylogenetic Tree: “tree” showing evolutionary relationship
Bell Ringer: 1. What is the scientific discipline where scientists classify organisms and group them in a logical manner? 2. Who was the “Father of Taxonomy”? 3. List the levels of Taxonomy from Most General to Most Specific. 4. What is a tool to help identify unfamiliar organisms by going through a series of choices that leads the user to the correct name of the species?