Southwest Asias Governments Israel Saudi Arabia Turkey Brain

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Southwest Asia’s Governments Israel, Saudi Arabia, & Turkey © Brain Wrinkles

Southwest Asia’s Governments Israel, Saudi Arabia, & Turkey © Brain Wrinkles

 • Let’s Review How do citizens participate in government? • AUTOCRACY: citizens have

• Let’s Review How do citizens participate in government? • AUTOCRACY: citizens have a very limited role in government; one person has all the power • DEMOCRACY: supreme power is vested in the people & exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation involving free elections © Brain Wrinkles

Let’s Review • What are the two types of democratic governments? • PARLIAMENTARY: citizens

Let’s Review • What are the two types of democratic governments? • PARLIAMENTARY: citizens elect members of Parliament, and then the members select the leader. • The leader works with or through the legislature. • PRESIDENTIAL: system of government in which the leader is constitutionally independent of the legislature. • Citizens directly elect leader, who works separately from legislature. © Brain Wrinkles

Let’s Review • Know the difference when it comes to leadership: • Chief Executive:

Let’s Review • Know the difference when it comes to leadership: • Chief Executive: is the Head of Government; this is a country’s top powerful official who manages the day-to-day activities of the government. • Head of State: is a leader who officially represents the nation during ceremonial events, but in reality holds very little political power. © Brain Wrinkles

SW Asia • When the European governments took the former Ottoman Empire territories, they

SW Asia • When the European governments took the former Ottoman Empire territories, they tried to install democracies. • During the Cold War, the US desired allies in the Middle East and pushed for democratic governments. • For the most part, democracy has been slow to catch on in the region. © Brain Wrinkles

Democracy • There are several democratic governments in the Middle East whose citizens play

Democracy • There are several democratic governments in the Middle East whose citizens play a key role in choosing government leaders. . • Turkey and Israel are the most democratic countries in the region. • In Iran, citizens can also vote for many government positions (despite strict Islamic laws). © Brain Wrinkles

Autocracy • Many Southwest Asian countries have extremely autocratic governments. • There a few

Autocracy • Many Southwest Asian countries have extremely autocratic governments. • There a few countries, including Saudi Arabia, who are absolute monarchies where the leader holds complete power. • In absolute monarchies, citizens have very little say in what the government does and little chance of government participation. © Brain Wrinkles

State of Israel Parliamentary Democracy © Brain Wrinkles

State of Israel Parliamentary Democracy © Brain Wrinkles

The Knesset Building, in Tel Aviv, is home to Israel’s government. © Brain Wrinkles

The Knesset Building, in Tel Aviv, is home to Israel’s government. © Brain Wrinkles

Background • In 1948, the United Nations voted to divide the former British colony

Background • In 1948, the United Nations voted to divide the former British colony of Palestine into two parts. • One part became the nation of Israel, a homeland for the Jewish people. • The other part was for the Palestinian Arabs. © Brain Wrinkles

Background • The governments of most of the countries in Southwest Asia often reflect

Background • The governments of most of the countries in Southwest Asia often reflect Islamic beliefs. • The emergence of Israel as a Jewish nation became a major political issue in the Middle East. © Brain Wrinkles

Leadership • The prime minister is the most powerful chief executive of the national

Leadership • The prime minister is the most powerful chief executive of the national government that holds the most political power. • He or she leads the legislature (Knesset) in making and enforcing laws in Israel. • The president is the head of state who performs mostly ceremonial duties and holds little political power. © Brain Wrinkles

Benjamin Netanyahu © Brain Wrinkles Prime Minister

Benjamin Netanyahu © Brain Wrinkles Prime Minister

Reuven Rivlin © Brain Wrinkles President

Reuven Rivlin © Brain Wrinkles President

How Leaders Are Chosen • Israeli citizens 18 and over elect members of the

How Leaders Are Chosen • Israeli citizens 18 and over elect members of the legislature (called Knesset). • Members of Knesset choose a president (head of state). • The president meets with the leaders of the political parties in Knesset and selects a prime minister (chief executive) from the majority party. © Brain Wrinkles

Legislature • Israel’s unicameral parliament is called the Knesset. • The Knesset passes all

Legislature • Israel’s unicameral parliament is called the Knesset. • The Knesset passes all laws, elects the president and prime minister, and supervises the work of the government through its committees. • Israel has no written constitution but has a set of laws called the Basic Laws. © Brain Wrinkles

Knesset Chamber © Brain Wrinkles

Knesset Chamber © Brain Wrinkles

Parliamentary Democracy • In Israel, the chief executive is selected by the parliament, not

Parliamentary Democracy • In Israel, the chief executive is selected by the parliament, not directly elected by the people. • Citizens vote for members of Knesset (parliament), then the elected members select the prime minister. • The prime minister is the powerful chief executive (head of the government) and runs the day-to-day activities of the government. © Brain Wrinkles

Role of the Citizen • Citizens must be 18 to vote, but voting is

Role of the Citizen • Citizens must be 18 to vote, but voting is not required by law. • As a democracy, its citizens can participate in voting and elections. • Citizens do NOT directly elect the leader (chief executive), only members of Knesset. © Brain Wrinkles

Voting in Israel © Brain Wrinkles

Voting in Israel © Brain Wrinkles

Role of the Citizen • Citizens also enjoy the freedoms of assembly, speech, and

Role of the Citizen • Citizens also enjoy the freedoms of assembly, speech, and the press (if national security is not compromised). • Israel also observes freedom of religious practice, but is unique in that people who emigrate to Israel and renounce other religions can become a citizen. © Brain Wrinkles

Personal Freedoms • For the most part, Israel has a better than average record

Personal Freedoms • For the most part, Israel has a better than average record of personal freedoms. • However, some areas to improve include discrimination against Arab. Israelis, unequal rights for women, and unequal education opportunities for Arab-Israelis. © Brain Wrinkles

Republic of Turkey Presidential Democracy © Brain Wrinkles

Republic of Turkey Presidential Democracy © Brain Wrinkles

Grand National Assembly Building of Turkey © Brain Wrinkles

Grand National Assembly Building of Turkey © Brain Wrinkles

Background • Turkey is one of the most democratic countries in the Middle East,

Background • Turkey is one of the most democratic countries in the Middle East, although it’s military has long been a powerful force in the country’s government. • Since World War II, Turkey has had many attempted (some successful) overthrows of the government by the military. © Brain Wrinkles

Background • In 2017, Turkey’s citizens voted to change the government from a parliamentary

Background • In 2017, Turkey’s citizens voted to change the government from a parliamentary democracy to a presidential one. • Turkey’s first election where Turkish citizens directly elected the leader took place in June 2018. © Brain Wrinkles

Leadership • The president is the most powerful chief executive and head of the

Leadership • The president is the most powerful chief executive and head of the national government that holds the most political power. • The vice-president is the head of state who performs mostly ceremonial duties and holds little political power. © Brain Wrinkles

Recep Tayyip Erdogan © Brain Wrinkles President

Recep Tayyip Erdogan © Brain Wrinkles President

How Leaders Are Chosen • The president is elected by Turkey’s citizens age 18

How Leaders Are Chosen • The president is elected by Turkey’s citizens age 18 and older. • The president chooses one member from the legislature to serve as vice-president. • The president also chooses a Council of Ministers who help run the government. © Brain Wrinkles

Legislature • Turkey’s parliament is called the Grand National Assembly. • It is a

Legislature • Turkey’s parliament is called the Grand National Assembly. • It is a unicameral governing body whose members are elected by Turkish citizens age 18 and older. • The Grand National Assembly passes all laws and supervises the work of the government through its committees. © Brain Wrinkles

Grand National Assembly © Brain Wrinkles

Grand National Assembly © Brain Wrinkles

Presidential Democracy • Turkey’s citizens recently voted to change their government from a parliamentary

Presidential Democracy • Turkey’s citizens recently voted to change their government from a parliamentary democracy to a presidential one. • The change abolished the office of the prime minister and transferred executive power to the president. © Brain Wrinkles

Presidential Democracy • Turkish citizens age 18 and older directly elect the president every

Presidential Democracy • Turkish citizens age 18 and older directly elect the president every five years. • In Turkey’s presidential system, the executive branch (president) and legislative branch (Grand National Assembly) are separate. © Brain Wrinkles

Role of the Citizen • Citizens must be 18 to vote, but voting is

Role of the Citizen • Citizens must be 18 to vote, but voting is not required by law. • As a democracy, its citizens can participate in voting and elections: • They elect both the president and members of the Grand National Assembly. • Citizens also enjoy the freedoms of assembly, speech, the press, and religious practice. © Brain Wrinkles

Woman Voting in Turkey © Brain Wrinkles

Woman Voting in Turkey © Brain Wrinkles

Personal Freedoms • Even though citizens have personal freedoms, there is still room for

Personal Freedoms • Even though citizens have personal freedoms, there is still room for improvement in Turkey. • For example, discrimination against women is a big issue in Turkey. • Also, the Turkish government has been accused of limiting the rights of the Kurds. © Brain Wrinkles

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Absolute Monarchy © Brain Wrinkles

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Absolute Monarchy © Brain Wrinkles

Riyadh Saudi Arabia Palace © Brain Wrinkles

Riyadh Saudi Arabia Palace © Brain Wrinkles

Background • Saudi Arabia is the largest country on the Arabian Peninsula and it

Background • Saudi Arabia is the largest country on the Arabian Peninsula and it has the most influence in the region. • It is an Islamic nation with 100% of its population being Muslim. © Brain Wrinkles

Background • Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy and members of the al-Saud family

Background • Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy and members of the al-Saud family have ruled Saudi Arabia since 1932. • Most government officials are relatives of the king. • The king may ask members of his family, Islamic scholars, and tribal leaders for advice on decisions. © Brain Wrinkles

Autocracy • Saudi Arabia is an autocracy. • The country is ruled by the

Autocracy • Saudi Arabia is an autocracy. • The country is ruled by the king and members of his royal family. • The king serves as both the chief executive and head of state. • He is responsible for making and enforcing the country’s laws. © Brain Wrinkles

Islamic Law • Conservative religious leaders also have a great deal of influence in

Islamic Law • Conservative religious leaders also have a great deal of influence in decisions made by the monarchy. • There is no written constitution; however, the Quran acts as the constitution. • Saudi Arabia is governed based on Islamic law (Shari’a). • As leader, the king is required to uphold the laws of Islam. © Brain Wrinkles

Leadership • Saudi Arabia is ruled by a hereditary monarchy, which means the government

Leadership • Saudi Arabia is ruled by a hereditary monarchy, which means the government is led by a king who comes from a family that has ruled the country for several generations. • The King of Saudi Arabia has been a member of the al-Saud family since the 1930 s. © Brain Wrinkles

Salman bin Abdulaziz al. Salud © Brain Wrinkles King of Saudi Arabia

Salman bin Abdulaziz al. Salud © Brain Wrinkles King of Saudi Arabia

How Leaders Are Chosen • The people of Saudi Arabia do not choose the

How Leaders Are Chosen • The people of Saudi Arabia do not choose the king; it is a hereditary position. • When a king dies, the Saudi family announces who the next king will be from among their male family members. © Brain Wrinkles

Legislature • Saudi Arabia has no real legislature, but does have something called the

Legislature • Saudi Arabia has no real legislature, but does have something called the Consultative Council. • It can propose legislation to the king but has no legal powers itself. • There are 150 members and a chairman that is chosen by the king to serve 4 -year terms. © Brain Wrinkles

Legislature • The king chooses two-thirds of the members of the Council, while men

Legislature • The king chooses two-thirds of the members of the Council, while men in the country vote for the remaining onethird of the members. • The Council mostly consists of members of the royal family. • There are no political parties in Saudi Arabia. © Brain Wrinkles

Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia in Riyadh © Brain Wrinkles

Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia in Riyadh © Brain Wrinkles

Role of the Citizen • In 2004, the Saudi government began allowing men who

Role of the Citizen • In 2004, the Saudi government began allowing men who are 21 and older to vote for low-level government positions, but all top-level positions are still appointed by the king. • Citizens have very little opportunity to participate in government and have very little say in what the government does. © Brain Wrinkles

Personal Freedoms • Human rights and personal freedoms are often denied in Saudi Arabia.

Personal Freedoms • Human rights and personal freedoms are often denied in Saudi Arabia. • Citizens are not allowed to practice any religion other than Islam. • Women’s rights are very limited; it is the only country in the world that forbids women from driving. © Brain Wrinkles

© Brain Wrinkles

© Brain Wrinkles

 • Personal Freedoms The government often uses censorship with the press and media

• Personal Freedoms The government often uses censorship with the press and media so that information is manipulated. • Saudi Arabia has long been criticized for violating human rights, and because the country values its position in the world economy, it is working to correct some of these injustices. © Brain Wrinkles