Science Starter List some properties that you already

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Science Starter • List some properties that you already know about acids and bases.

Science Starter • List some properties that you already know about acids and bases.

Introduction to Acids and Bases Arbor Prep Chemistry

Introduction to Acids and Bases Arbor Prep Chemistry

Properties of Acids • “Any compound that increases the concentration of hydronium ions in

Properties of Acids • “Any compound that increases the concentration of hydronium ions in water is said to be an acid. ” – Sour – Blue litmus paper turns red. – Low p. H values (<7) – Reacts with… • Metals such as Zn and Mg to produce H 2(g) • Hydroxide bases to produce water and a salt. • Carbonates to produce carbon dioxide.

Properties of Bases • “Any compound that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in

Properties of Bases • “Any compound that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in water is said to be a base. – Bitter/caustic tasting – Slippery/soapy feeling – Red litmus paper turns blue. – Has the ability to neutralize acids. – High p. H values (>7)

Arrhenius Acids and Bases • Arrhenius Acids and Bases are the most basic definitions

Arrhenius Acids and Bases • Arrhenius Acids and Bases are the most basic definitions of acids and bases. They are commonly accepted. • An Arrhenius Acid is a chemical compounds that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in water. (H+) • An Arrhenius Base is a chemical compounds that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in water. (OH-)

Lewis Definition • UNIVERSAL Definition since everything has electrons. • Lewis Acids are electron

Lewis Definition • UNIVERSAL Definition since everything has electrons. • Lewis Acids are electron pair acceptors. • Lewis Bases are electron pair donors.

Acid/Base Pairs • Acid base reactions produce new acids and bases. – The new

Acid/Base Pairs • Acid base reactions produce new acids and bases. – The new ones are called “conjugates” – Acids lose protons to become conjugate bases. – Bases gain protons to become conjugate acids. Identify the acids, bases, and the pairs.

Every Acid Has a Conjugate Base. (Just like every rose has it’s thorn. )

Every Acid Has a Conjugate Base. (Just like every rose has it’s thorn. )

Identify the Acid/Base Pairs HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) + H 2 O(l)

Identify the Acid/Base Pairs HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) + H 2 O(l) C 2 H 3 O 2–(aq) + H 3 O+(aq) OH –(aq) + HCO 3–(aq) CO 32–(aq) + H 2 O(l)

Sulfuric Acid q Highest volume production of any chemical in the U. S. q

Sulfuric Acid q Highest volume production of any chemical in the U. S. q Used in the production of paper q Used in production of fertilizers q Used in petroleum refining Thick clouds of sulfuric acid are a feature of the atmosphere of Venus. (image provided by NASA)

Nitric Acid • Used in the production of fertilizers • Used in the production

Nitric Acid • Used in the production of fertilizers • Used in the production of explosives • Nitric acid is a volatile acid – its reactive components evaporate easily • Stains proteins (including skin!)

Hydrochloric Acid • Used in the pickling of steel • Used to purify magnesium

Hydrochloric Acid • Used in the pickling of steel • Used to purify magnesium from sea water • Part of gastric juice, it aids in the digestion of protein • Sold commercially as “Muriatic acid”

Phosphoric Acid o A flavoring agent in sodas o Used in the manufacture of

Phosphoric Acid o A flavoring agent in sodas o Used in the manufacture of detergents o Used in the manufacture of fertilizers o Not a common laboratory reagent

Acetic Acid v Used in the manufacture of plastics v Used in making pharmaceuticals

Acetic Acid v Used in the manufacture of plastics v Used in making pharmaceuticals v Acetic acid is the acid present in vinegar

Acids are Proton Donors Monoprotic acids HCl Triprotic acids H 3 PO 4 HC

Acids are Proton Donors Monoprotic acids HCl Triprotic acids H 3 PO 4 HC 2 H 3 O 2 HNO 3 Diprotic acids H 2 SO 4 H 2 CO 3

Electrolytes • Electrolytes are ionic compounds in solution. • They can be classified as

Electrolytes • Electrolytes are ionic compounds in solution. • They can be classified as either strong or weak(good conductors of electricity or poor). Strong Electrolytes • Ionize/dissociate 100%. • Strong acids/bases • Most ionic salts ELECTROLYTES CONDUCT ELECTRICITY!!! Strong Electrolytes • Ionize/dissociate < 100%. • Insoluble Salts

Acids You Should Know Strong Acids Weak Acids Sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4

Acids You Should Know Strong Acids Weak Acids Sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4 Phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4 Hydrochloric acid, HCl Acetic acid, HC 2 H 3 O 2 Nitric acid, HNO 3

Electrolytes and Ionization • Whenever a neutral atom or compound becomes charged is called

Electrolytes and Ionization • Whenever a neutral atom or compound becomes charged is called “ionization. ” • A common example is the hydronium ion. When an acid is added to water. The neutral water becomes a charged particle. • A hydronium ion is sometimes represented as H+ or H 3 O+.

Strong Acids vs. Weak Acids Strong acids are assumed to be 100% ionized in

Strong Acids vs. Weak Acids Strong acids are assumed to be 100% ionized in solution (good proton donors). HCl H 2 SO 4 HNO 3

Strong Acids vs. Weak Acids Weak acids are usually less than 5% ionized in

Strong Acids vs. Weak Acids Weak acids are usually less than 5% ionized in solution (poor proton donors). H 3 PO 4 HC 2 H 3 O 2 Organic acids

Acids React With… Acids react with active metals to form salts and hydrogen gas.

Acids React With… Acids react with active metals to form salts and hydrogen gas. Mg + 2 HCl Mg. Cl 2 + H 2(g) Zn + 2 HCl Zn. Cl 2 + H 2(g) Mg + H 2 SO 4 Mg. SO 4 + H 2(g)

Acids React With… Acids React with Carbonates 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2

Acids React With… Acids React with Carbonates 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 + Na 2 CO 3 2 Na. C 2 H 3 O 2 + H 2 O + CO 2

Effects of Acid Rain on Marble (Calcium Carbonate) George Washington: BEFORE George Washington: AFTER

Effects of Acid Rain on Marble (Calcium Carbonate) George Washington: BEFORE George Washington: AFTER

Acids Neutralize Bases Neutralization reactions ALWAYS produce a salt and water. HCl + Na.

Acids Neutralize Bases Neutralization reactions ALWAYS produce a salt and water. HCl + Na. OH Na. Cl + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 + 2 Na. OH Na 2 SO 4 + 2 H 2 O 2 HNO 3 + Mg(OH)2 Mg(NO 3)2 + 2 H 2 O

Bases Neutralize Acids Milk of Magnesia contains magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, which neutralizes stomach acid,

Bases Neutralize Acids Milk of Magnesia contains magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, which neutralizes stomach acid, HCl. 2 HCl + Mg(OH)2 Mg. Cl 2 + 2 H 2 O

STAMP IT!!!

STAMP IT!!!