- Slides: 28
Middle Colonies New York Pennsylvania New Jersey Delaware
Middle Colonies 1. River systems 2. Valleys – fertile soil 3. ”Bread basket" large farms - surplus food 4. diverse population 5. manufacturing 6. iron mines, glass, shipyards, and paper 7. Cities: New York and Philadelphia Middle Colonies
THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE COLONIES
Plains, Hills, and Rivers • The Middle Colonies formed a region of contrasts because New Jersey and Delaware lie on the Atlantic Coastal Plain and New York and Pennsylvania stretch across the Appalachians. So they had different land lifestyles. • There was a fall line created as the rivers dropped from the hills to the coastal plain. This caused rapids and waterfalls.
Plains, Hills, and Rivers cont. • The middle colonies had beaverfilled streams, thick forests and rich farm land. • Colonist used the rivers to transport these goods. • The fall line was used to power mills and saws.
Plains, Hills, and Rivers cont. • The most important rivers in the Middle Colonies were the Delaware and the Hudson rivers. • They were large enough for ships which promoted port cities for trade. – Example: New York City
Farming the Middle Colonies • There was rich soil and a 6 to 7 month growing season that made farming easy in the middle colonies.
Urban Population Growth 1650 - 1775
New Netherland (New York) is first established by the Dutch • 1609: Henry Hudson sailing for Dutch East India Company sails into Hudson river looking for passage through continent ~ claims area for Dutch • “Bought” Manhattan from Indians
English immigration to New Netherland resulted in 1/2 total population • The English regarded Dutch as intruders • New York was a royal gift to James, the King’s brother (aka Duke of York) • Thus, when the English invaded, the leader of the Dutch colony, Peter Stuyvesant, gave up without a fight. • Allowed to remain, the Dutch made up a large segment of New York’s population for many years.
John Peter Zenger • Zenger published a weekly newspaper called “The New York Weekly journal. ” • Zenger was arrested because he published a newspaper about the governor being dishonest. • The trial helped to establish freedom of the press. • As long as it was true, you could find fault with public officials. • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=a Wzmsu. B 0 J_4
New Jersey Lord John Berkeley • James gave 2 friends, Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, the section of New York located between the Hudson River and Delaware Bay in 1664 – He felt the territory of New York was too large to administer • Both proprietors allowed religious freedom and an assembly in addition to giving generous land offers to attract settlers
• Mid-1600 s: religious dissenters named Quakers arose in England • Hated by authorities because they refused to pay taxes to Church of England, refused to take oaths, refused military service
William Penn, a Quaker, was a close friend of King Charles II, and Charles granted Penn what became Pennsylvania. • Charles II perceived the egalitarian Quakers as dangerous radicals & desired to export the Quakers to someplace far from England
Royal Land Grant to Penn
q. Penn governs the colony q. Advertised in Europe, promising land & freedoms q. Frame of Government (guaranteed elected assembly), Charter of Liberties (freedom of worship, open immigration), fair treatment of Native Americans
Penn’s Treaty with the Native Americans
Penn & Native Americans Penn attempted to treat Native Americans more fairly than did other colonies. n Penn’s treatment of the Native Americans was so fair that Quakers went to them unarmed and even employed them as babysitters n
Pennsylvania & Neighbors • However, as non-Quaker immigrants came, they were less tolerant of Indians (Scots-Irish) • Liberal features: elected assembly, no tax-supported church, freedom of worship, only 2 capital crimes
Ben Franklin’s Philly
Benjamin Franklin • 1 of 17 children born in Boston. (15 out of 17) • Worked at his brother’s printing press. • His brother made money while he worked so he ran away for Philadelphia. • Philadelphia was nosy and exciting to him. • It was busy all day long.
A City of Opportunity • In Philadelphia, Ben owned a print shop and published his own paper by the age of 24. • Franklin wrote the Poor Richard’s Almanac which was the best selling book in the colonies. • An almanac is a book of facts on many subjects. His taught farmers how & when to plant crops.
A City of Opportunity • Workshops lined the streets of Philadelphia. • Craftworkers made good to be sold. • The Delaware River was lined with docks built by merchants. • Ships left Philadelphia with, fur, meat, lumber, and grain. • They returned with goods, from England like, silks, lace, swords, and mouse traps.
Franklin’s Improvements on Philadelphia • Benjamin Franklin started America’s first public library in Philadelphia in 1731. Any money collected was used to buy more books for the library. • Franklin also started fire companies. • Benjamin worked for paved streets and street lights so it would be safer at night. • The largest city in the colony was Philadelphia in 1760. • Philadelphia, being the center of a farming region, grew rapidly. • Visitors enjoyed Philadelphia’s well lit streets and fine appearance.
Colony/Date Person Responsible New Netherland In 1609 --Dutch Henry Hudson for Netherlands New York— 1664 England Duke of York of England names it New York New Jersey---1702 Pennsylvania— 1681 Delaware--1682 Indian land---Dutch and Swedish gift from King Charles II to brother James--gives to his friends Lord John Berkeley & Sir George Carteret William Penn Swedes Why Founded Governed/Owner English fleet takes New Amsterdam from Dutch in 1664 and becomes New York City---Good harbor for trade New Netherlands was an autocracy 1689 ---English Bill of Rights Representative Govt Royal Colony Attract new settlers for Dutch and Swedish colonists Royal Colony Penn founded for religious freedom for the Quakers---Holy Experiment—invited all people Representative govt Royal Colony