Introduction Occupational Hygiene in the Oil Gas Industry

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Introduction • Occupational Hygiene in the • Oil & Gas Industry • Day 1

Introduction • Occupational Hygiene in the • Oil & Gas Industry • Day 1 – Section 1 & 2 1. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Course Aim To provide the student with specialist information relating to workplace situations likely

Course Aim To provide the student with specialist information relating to workplace situations likely to arise in the oil and gas industry 2. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Course Learning Outcomes Participants will be able to: • Apply the skills obtained in

Course Learning Outcomes Participants will be able to: • Apply the skills obtained in the core subjects to situations specific to the oil and gas industry • Outline the key occupational hygiene issues within the oil and gas industry and describe how to manage these issues • Assess workplaces in the oil and gas industry for potential unacceptable exposures 3. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

What is Required to Complete this Course • Ask questions as we go through

What is Required to Complete this Course • Ask questions as we go through the notes • Participate in the case study discussions • Participate in the practical exercises • Attempt the questions each night • Evening revision questions each day. • Mock examination (evening of day 4) • Practical assessment (day 5) 4. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Today’s Topics • Role of the Hygienist • Basic Petroleum Chemistry • Introduction to

Today’s Topics • Role of the Hygienist • Basic Petroleum Chemistry • Introduction to the Oil & Gas Industry • Specific Issues for the Oil & Gas Industry 5. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Role of the Hygienist 6. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J

Role of the Hygienist 6. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

History of Occupational Disease (1) • 4 th century B. C. Hippocrates recognises lead

History of Occupational Disease (1) • 4 th century B. C. Hippocrates recognises lead toxicity • 1 st century A. D. First respirator mask described -bladder derived protective mask for use by workers against dust and lead fumes. • 2 nd century Dangers of acid mists to copper miners is recognised (Galen) 7. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

History of Occupational Disease (2) • No major advances until 1473 when Ulrich Ellenborg

History of Occupational Disease (2) • No major advances until 1473 when Ulrich Ellenborg published a pamphlet on occupational diseases and gave instruction on hygiene • 1556 Agricola (German scholar) described the hazards of mining noting that some women in Carpathian Mountains had seven (7) husbands due to their early death from “consumption” 8. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Paracelsus • 16 th century Paracelsus (Swiss alchemist) published considerable material on the toxicology

Paracelsus • 16 th century Paracelsus (Swiss alchemist) published considerable material on the toxicology of smelting metals (some of which was incorrect). His description of Mercury poisoning was very advanced • In 1540 he makes the profound statement - “No substance is a poison by itself, it is the dose that makes a substance a poison” 9. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Paracelsus 10. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene

Paracelsus 10. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Ramazzini • 1700 first intensive treatise on occupational diseases published by Bernardo Ramazzini (Italian

Ramazzini • 1700 first intensive treatise on occupational diseases published by Bernardo Ramazzini (Italian physician) under the title “De Morbis Artificum”. • Coined the phrase asked by of every occupational physician “Of what trade are you? ” 11. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

18 th -19 th Century recognition of diseases from work • 18 th century

18 th -19 th Century recognition of diseases from work • 18 th century Sir George Baker established link between “Devonshire Colic” and lead in cider industry • Percival Pott recognised soot as one of the major causes of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps which lead to the “Chimney-Sweepers Act of 1788” which included requirements for control 12. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Development of health & safety laws • Thomas Beddoes & Sir Humphrey Davy collaborated

Development of health & safety laws • Thomas Beddoes & Sir Humphrey Davy collaborated in describing occupations which were prone to cause “phthisis’ (tuberculosis) • 19 th century saw passing of English Factory Acts in 1833 (focused more on compensation rather than prevention) 13. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Recognition of Numerous Occupational Diseases • Late 19 th century saw the recognition of

Recognition of Numerous Occupational Diseases • Late 19 th century saw the recognition of numerous diseases and conditions in the construction and mining industries (e. g. caissons disease) and development of monitoring methods by people such as Haldane 14. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Alice Hamilton (USA) • 20 th century Alice Hamilton (physician in early 1900 s)

Alice Hamilton (USA) • 20 th century Alice Hamilton (physician in early 1900 s) presented substantial evidence between illness and exposure to toxins • She went further by proposing practical solutions to the problems 15. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

OH&S Legislation • From the 1930 s numerous OH&S legislation was introduced throughout the

OH&S Legislation • From the 1930 s numerous OH&S legislation was introduced throughout the world (much compensation focused) but it focused attention on occupational safety and disease • Introduction of OH&S Acts in most countries with OSHA Act introduced in the USA in 1970 • Roben’s Report in the UK 1972 16. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Where are we now? • Disease still occurs but at a greatly reduced rate

Where are we now? • Disease still occurs but at a greatly reduced rate and in different areas • This overall improvement appears to be building complacency in some quarters • Transfer of hazardous work into underdeveloped countries without the hazard controls • Government focus in this area is being reduced 17. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Where are we now? • Regulation is becoming less prescriptive • Industry is assuming

Where are we now? • Regulation is becoming less prescriptive • Industry is assuming good governance role (OK for large organisations, but what about small to medium businesses) • Litigation becoming a way of life • Role of hygienists becoming more critical and demanding due to prevention aspects 18. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Where are we now in O&G Industry? • Focus is on safety and process

Where are we now in O&G Industry? • Focus is on safety and process integrity – ‘Don’t have a fire of explosion – The cost is enormous • Environment is important – don’t pollute • The clean-up cost is enormous. • Litigation becoming a way of life • Role of hygienists becoming more critical and demanding due to prevention aspects 19. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Definition of Occupational Hygiene “Occupational Hygiene is the discipline of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and

Definition of Occupational Hygiene “Occupational Hygiene is the discipline of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling health hazards in the working environment with the objective of protecting worker health and well-being and safeguarding the community at large” Source: IOHA 20. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Key Tasks of Occupational Hygienists • • Anticipation Recognition Evaluation Control of workplace health

Key Tasks of Occupational Hygienists • • Anticipation Recognition Evaluation Control of workplace health hazards 21. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Anticipation • Design review for new projects, processes, or equipment installations • Job hazard

Anticipation • Design review for new projects, processes, or equipment installations • Job hazard analysis for major maintenance tasks with emphasis on the health hazards • New chemical product evaluations • Safety and Health plans for construction, demolition, or remediation projects 22. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Recognition • Workplace surveys to identify general health hazards • Special surveys — i.

Recognition • Workplace surveys to identify general health hazards • Special surveys — i. e. : asbestos, lead, lighting, indoor air quality • Emergency response — i. e. identifying hazards in emergency situations 23. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Evaluation • Reviewing process, equipment, or hazardous material physical and chemical data to determine

Evaluation • Reviewing process, equipment, or hazardous material physical and chemical data to determine the level of risk for workers • Exposure monitoring to measure actual exposures to hazardous agents • Decision making regarding the relative risk of exposures to health hazard agents • Documentation of exposure assessments 24. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Control • Design controls for the protection of workers from health hazard agents •

Control • Design controls for the protection of workers from health hazard agents • Apply controls preferentially according to the occupational hygiene hierarchy of controls • Check control systems to assure they are working effectively • Design and implement administrative control programs • Train workers to understand the hazards and how to protect themselves 25. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Integration of Hygiene into HSE Function • There is a need for site OH&S

Integration of Hygiene into HSE Function • There is a need for site OH&S professionals to function as a team • Hygienists have special skills, but so do others and we should acknowledge these and work together • Co-operation is the key to success on any site 26. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Emergency Response • Occupational hygienists can play an important role in supporting emergency response

Emergency Response • Occupational hygienists can play an important role in supporting emergency response actions at sites • Types of assistance – Identification, evaluation & control of spills or vapour releases – Thermal assessments for first responders – Decontamination of workers 27. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Occupational Hygienists • Are trained to recognise conditions that give rise to potential health

Occupational Hygienists • Are trained to recognise conditions that give rise to potential health problems – What health effects are possible in the workplace? • Need to understand the process – What is causing the health effect? – How are people being exposed? For the oil industry it is: People, Processes & Products 28. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Occupational Hygienists • Develop appropriate and cost effective monitoring programs to establish worker exposures

Occupational Hygienists • Develop appropriate and cost effective monitoring programs to establish worker exposures – What type of monitoring program is required? – Number of samples to give an accurate estimate of exposure? 29. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Occupational Hygienists • Participate in the development of control technologies – Control technologies need

Occupational Hygienists • Participate in the development of control technologies – Control technologies need to be effective & practical • Develop and participate in education programs – Use of monitoring data is important in getting over a message to the workforce 30. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Occupational Hygienists • Need to have the appropriate skills to undertake the above tasks

Occupational Hygienists • Need to have the appropriate skills to undertake the above tasks How do we develop these skills? – University & professional training – Practical on the job training – Specialised training courses – Mentoring – Networking with other professionals 31. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J 11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry