BASIC PRINCIPLES IN OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE Day 1 Insert

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BASIC PRINCIPLES IN OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE Day 1

BASIC PRINCIPLES IN OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE Day 1

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Insert site Emergency procedures

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Insert Lecturer(s) Background

Course Aims • To provide a practical understanding of occupational hygiene for people who

Course Aims • To provide a practical understanding of occupational hygiene for people who need to manage or advise on workplace health issues in their employment. • To provide a foundation for students who wish to undertake more in-depth study in individual occupational hygiene subjects. • To inform and enthuse students about the field of occupational hygiene.

Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module you should have a basic understanding

Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module you should have a basic understanding of: • The value of occupational hygiene and the role of the occupational hygienist • The range of health hazards encountered in the workplace. • Hazard recognition techniques • Sources and potential routes of occupational exposure • Exposure assessment and the measurement processes involved • Methods of controlling exposure • The management of occupational hygiene programmes.

What is expected of you • Ask questions as we go through the notes

What is expected of you • Ask questions as we go through the notes • Participate in the discussions • Participate in the practical exercises • Attempt the questions each night.

Day 1 - Contents • Introduction • Human Physiology • Fundamentals of Toxicology •

Day 1 - Contents • Introduction • Human Physiology • Fundamentals of Toxicology • Examples of Hazardous Substances/Processes

1 - INTRODUCTION

1 - INTRODUCTION

What is Occupational Hygiene? The International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA) defines Occupational Hygiene as:

What is Occupational Hygiene? The International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA) defines Occupational Hygiene as: 'The discipline of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling health hazards in the working environment with the objective of protecting worker health and well-being and safeguarding the community at large. '

HEALTH HAZARDS Chemical agents Gases, vapours, solids, fibres, liquids, dusts, mists, fumes, etc. Physical

HEALTH HAZARDS Chemical agents Gases, vapours, solids, fibres, liquids, dusts, mists, fumes, etc. Physical agents Noise and vibration Heat and cold Electromagnetic fields, lighting etc. Biological agents Bacteria, fungi, etc. Ergonomic factors Lifting, stretching, and repetitive motion Psychosocial factors Stress, workload and work organisation

ANTICIPATING AND RECOGNIZING ANTICIPATION – this involves identifying potential hazards in the workplace before

ANTICIPATING AND RECOGNIZING ANTICIPATION – this involves identifying potential hazards in the workplace before they are introduced. RECOGNITION - this involves identifying the potential hazard that a chemical, physical or biological agent - or an adverse ergonomic situation - poses to health.

EVALUATION of the extent of exposure to the chemical hazards, physical or biological agents

EVALUATION of the extent of exposure to the chemical hazards, physical or biological agents (or adverse ergonomic situation) in the workplace. This often involves measurement of the personal exposure of a worker to the hazard/agent in the workplace, particularly at the relevant interface between the environment and the body, e. g. breathing zone, hearing zone, and assessment of the data in terms of recommended occupational exposure limits (OELs), where such criteria exist.

CONTROL of the chemical, physical or biological agent - or adverse ergonomic situation, by

CONTROL of the chemical, physical or biological agent - or adverse ergonomic situation, by procedural, engineering or other means where the evaluation indicates that this is necessary.

What is Occupational Hygiene?

What is Occupational Hygiene?

History of Occupational Hygiene • Ca 400 BC Hippocrates in ancient Greece first noted

History of Occupational Hygiene • Ca 400 BC Hippocrates in ancient Greece first noted illness in mercury sulphide workers.

History of Occupational Hygiene • Ca 1540 Paracelsus in Austria described lung diseases in

History of Occupational Hygiene • Ca 1540 Paracelsus in Austria described lung diseases in mineworkers

History of Occupational Hygiene Agricola (ca 1556)

History of Occupational Hygiene Agricola (ca 1556)

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1700 Ramazzini, the father of industrial medicine, and Professor

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1700 Ramazzini, the father of industrial medicine, and Professor of Medicine in Padua, wrote “De Morbis Artificum Diatriba”, the first formal study of industrial diseases. • It was he who added an addition to Hippocrates list of questions to patients when taking a history, namely “what is your occupation? ”

History of Occupational Hygiene The Industrial revolution from the late 1700 s through to

History of Occupational Hygiene The Industrial revolution from the late 1700 s through to the late 1800 s led to increased urbanisation and industrialisation. Picture of Manchester UK.

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1858 John Stenhouse introduces a charcoal impregnated mask to

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1858 John Stenhouse introduces a charcoal impregnated mask to control exposure to gases and vapours.

History of Occupational Hygiene 1889 - Exposure limits are set for humidity and carbon

History of Occupational Hygiene 1889 - Exposure limits are set for humidity and carbon dioxide in cotton mills in the UK.

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1890 s - Haldane undertakes work on the toxicity

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1890 s - Haldane undertakes work on the toxicity of Carbon Monoxide by exposing rats mice and even himself to varying concentrations within an “exposure chamber”. • He used these results to develop “dose v time” plots for severity and discomfort of health effects. • He introduces the use of small animals and in particular Canaries as the first way of monitoring to give an indication of the levels of toxic gas.

History of Occupational Hygiene 1910 Alice Hamilton works in the US as the first

History of Occupational Hygiene 1910 Alice Hamilton works in the US as the first Industrial toxicologist pioneering the field of toxicology and occupational hygiene.

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1917 - During the first world war, the urgency

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1917 - During the first world war, the urgency of the work in munitions factories led to poor working conditions. • The work of the “Health of Munitions Workers Committee” laid the ground for many subsequent practices in ergonomics, psychology, welfare and shift-work regimes.

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1920 s-30 s - Industrial hygiene develops and grows

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1920 s-30 s - Industrial hygiene develops and grows in the USA in both the Public Health Service (PHS) and large private companies. These developments lay the foundations for the creation of two professional organisations. • 1938/9 - The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene (ACGIH) and the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) were formed. The first independent professional organisations for industrial/occupational hygienists. IH numbers in USA grow rapidly during WWII to assist the war effort. • 1953 - British Occupational Hygiene Society (BOHS) founded. Society starts publishing Annals of Occupational Hygiene in 1958. • 1960 s - Occupational Safety and Health Act in the USA and the Health and Safety at Work Act in the UK lay the path for Risk Assessment / performance based legislation.

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1970 s - Occupational Safety and Health Act in

History of Occupational Hygiene • 1970 s - Occupational Safety and Health Act in the USA and the Health and Safety at Work Act in the UK lay the path for Risk Assessment / performance based legislation. • 1980/90 s - The practice of occupational hygiene grows widely in the USA, UK, The Netherlands and Australia with legislation in these countries being introduced specifically to focus on chemical and physical hazards. • 2000 s - The societies of 25 different countries are members of the International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA). – Industrialisation in countries such as China and India increase the need for Occupational hygiene. – The development of modelling techniques for assessing exposure.

The Importance of Occupational Hygiene The World Health Organisation estimates that globally there are:

The Importance of Occupational Hygiene The World Health Organisation estimates that globally there are: • 2, 000 work-related deaths per year. • 386, 000 deaths each year from exposure to airborne particulates. • 152, 000 deaths per year from carcinogens in the workplace. • 37% of Lower Back Pain is attributed to occupation.

The Importance of Occupational Hygiene That means approximately 228 people have died from work

The Importance of Occupational Hygiene That means approximately 228 people have died from work related injury or ill health since we started an hour ago.