- Slides: 18
Stone Age to Neolithic Revolution Reading Review Questions: 1. What are some features of a hunting and gathering society? • They didn’t build permanent shelters. • At the mercy of nature and climate. • Small groups of people who travelled from place to place in search of food. 2. What determines the migratory patterns of hunting and gathering people? • Climate • Availability of food. 3. What were some important changes brought about by the development of agriculture? • People began to settle in one place. • Food surplus – one person can farm the second can do something else, say, become a tool maker or dig an irrigation ditch. 4. How did agriculture impact the environment? • Farming villages altered the lay of the land by building irrigation ditches. • Clearing land for agriculture, chopping down trees for materials, or slash and burn agriculture. • Stones were unearthed and cut for houses and monuments. • Animals no longer used only for food and clothing – domesticated to pull plows. • As a result farmers fields could be bigger as they didn’t have to turn the soil by hand. 5. What were the basic stages and consequences of metallurgy? • People began experimenting with copper but this was superseded by bronze – hence Bronze Age • Make superior metal tools which made farming easier, also weapons etc.
Characteristics of Early Human Development Briefly explain what the following early human societies did: Nomads: • Follow the Food. Really early people, hadn’t made any settlements yet, didn’t know how to farm. Sole focus in life was their basic needs: food and shelter. Foraging Societies: • Small groups who move from place to place as climate and availability of plants and animals dictated. Women and men basically equal. Pastoral Societies: • • Taming the animals. Domestication of animals. Moved constantly to look for new grazing areas. As they domesticated more animals, they experimented with finding a more dependable food supply through the cultivation of plants. Women and men basically equal Agricultural Societies: • Hunt and Gather. This is my land. Groups of people moved from nomadic lifestyles to agricultural lifestyles and settlements. This is called the Neolithic or Agricultural Revolution. We are not talking about full blown civilizations yet. Food surplus = specialization of labour. Men become the dominant gender – working in the fields, hunting, etc. women are relegated more to domestic chores.
Consequences of Agriculture Emotional and psychological • • Nomadic people moved from place to place – so people shared the land. When people settled in one place they started to think of a particular piece of land as home – their home. If someone comes and drinks or fishes in their river or builds a house on their hill, they might come to think of newcomers as intruders. When nomads started to interfere with sedentary societies through trade and conflict – things started to get complicated. Innovations as a result of a food surplus Think of dominos – More food meant a need for storage – better storage facilities were developed – people are needed to arrange and make decisions for the storage and protection of food – leadership and army begins to develop.
Influence of agriculture on Gender Roles Role of women during Old Stone Age • • Gathered berries Tended to children Shared equal responsibility for food Many religious female gods as well as male How did things change during the Neolithic Age? • • • Men have harder jobs: they plow and hunt Man = military Women have more and more children Rise of patriarchy (society based on males) Men own and inherit property Begin to regulate women’s sexual behavior Early idea of marriage Religion stressed more male gods, less females Overtime, women’s status declines and they lose rights
The Emergence of Civilization • What characteristics are needed for a settlement to become a civilization? Large population, crop surplus, trade, a middle class, some kind of leadership (a non-farming elite) Rank them in order of importance: 1 = Surplus of food. WHY? ? ? • At its most basic element, civilization is based on the food supply. Uncivilized man lives at the mercy of the land weather. He does not provide for times of need. • Three meals a day area a highly advanced institution. Savages gorge themselves or fast. People lived at extremes: life was either a feast or a famine. There was little thought of providing enough food for the next day.
• Compared to noncivilised societies, what are the major drawbacks of civilisation? – Reliance on sedentary agriculture. – The inability to react to drought or flood. – Civilisations form political organisations that people become dependent on. – Contiagious diseases spread more easily. – Social inequality. • Gender inequality • Racism • Uneven distribution of wealth. – Conflict with other civilisations or barbarians
• What advantages does an agriculturally based society have over a hunter-gather society? – More stability and opportunity for growth. – Food is more readily available. – This allows for time for the society grow beyond simple food collection. • • Technological innovations Leadership and planning Organized religion. Writing systems Specialization of labour Long distance trade Cultural advancements; language, philosophy, art, etc.
Problems with the term Civilization • As discussed above, "civilization" has a number of meanings, and its use can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. • However, "civilization" can be a highly connotative word. It might bring to mind qualities such as superiority, humaneness, and refinement. Indeed, many members of civilized societies have seen themselves as superior to the "barbarians" outside their civilization. • Many argue that the division of societies into 'civilized' and 'uncivilized' is meaningless. On a basic level, they say there is no difference between civilizations and tribal societies; that each simply does what it can with the resources it has. • In this view, the concept of "civilization" has merely been the justification for colonialism, imperialism, genocide, and coercive acculturation. • For all of the above reasons, many scholars today avoid using the term "civilization" as a stand-alone term; they prefer to use urban society or intensive agricultural society, which are much less ambiguous, more neutral-sounding terms. • "Civilization" however remains in common academic use when describing specific societies, such as "Mayan Civilization".
Themes • The course examines World History using five overarching themes as described in the AP World History Course Description to identify the broad patterns and processes that explain change and continuity over time. • Interactions between humans and the environment – e. g – how geography and climate affected the migration of early humans. • • • • Development and interaction of cultures – e. g trading through the Silk Road lead to the spread if ideas - cultural diffusion. State-building, expansion, and conflict – e. g – the World Wars Creation, expansion, and interactions of economic systems – e. g – interregional trading Development and transformation of social structures – e. g – gender roles.
Aim: How did the Sumerians develop a civilization? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mesopotamia Means the land between two rivers It is in between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Located in the Fertile Crescent The rivers in this area are violent and unpredictable 6. Many famous civilizations formed in this area like the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Persians 7. These famous civilizations were located in present day Iran & Iraq
II. Sumerian Civilization 1. 3000 BC the first city-states were Ur, Uruk, and Kish 2. The Cities were individual city-states 3. They all shared common characteristics 4. They constantly competed against each other
Sumerian Government, Religion & Society • Government was a theocracy. Theocracy is when priests or religious rulers govern society. • The ancient Sumerians were polytheistic • They had 3000 gods • Each city-state had its own god and were very superstitious. • They believed the afterlife to be a grim place • Priests had political power
Social Structure: –Ruler –Nobles –Priests –Commoners –Farmers –Slaves
IV. Sumerian Jobs & Achievements • Job specialization was irrigation, merchants, artisans, and most importantly scribes • Created a number system based on 60. 60 minute hours, and 360 degree circle. • Developed astronomy, algebra & geometry • Created the wheel which helped farming and trade • First schools were created with strict discipline & went from sunrise to sunset • Early medicine used plants for cures • The Sumerians were responsible for many achievements like cuneiform. • Cuneiform was the earliest form of writing
V. Arts & Architecture 1. The Epic of Gilgamesh 2. Created Ziggurats 3. Ziggurats are temples built for the gods to bring the people closer to the gods & the gods closer to the people
Hammurabi • Severe punishments which were vengeful. “An eye for an eye” Why? • What can we infer from H. C about the status of women in Babylonia? • Protection of property rights. • Written law = universal acceptance. Nobody can claim ignorance. • Prevents the rule of the Jungle. • Government tries to protect its citizens.