- Slides: 60
Welcome to the AP Human Geography Saturday Cram Session Grab a packet, you need a pen/cil
AP TEST • Part I. Multiple Choice • 75 Questions in 60 minutes • Part II. Free Response Questions (FRQs) • 3 FRQ’s in 75 minutes
AP Review Models
To practice FRQ’s • • • Google AP Central. . Go to website AP Courses and Exams Course Home Pages AP Human Exam Info Click on any year to see the questions and answer guidelines • http: //apcentral. collegeboard. com/apc/me mbers/exam_information/2004. html
The Demographic Transition : The demographic transition consists of four stages, which move from high birth and death rates, to declines first in birth rates then in death rates, and finally to a stage of low birth and death rates. Population growth is most rapid in the second stage.
Ravenstein’s Migration Laws • 1. Most relocate a short distance and remain within same country • 2. Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity • 3. Each migration flow produces a compensating counter-flow. • 4. Natives of towns are less migratory than those from rural areas. • 5. Females are more migratory than males. • 6. Economic factors are the main cause of migration.
• Human capital theory of migration: that educated workers often migrate from poor to wealthy countries. This benefits both countries. • Life Course theory of migration: the interaction of major life events (marriage, having a baby, divorce, college grad) with migration have major repercussions on a society. • ex. Married individuals less likely to move than singles. Families with more kids move less
• U. S. Immigration Patterns U. S. has more foreign-born residents than any other country: approximately 43 million as of 2010—growing by 1 million annually. • Three main eras of immigration in the U. S. – 1. Colonial settlement in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries – 2. Mass European immigration in the late 19 th and early twentieth centuries (in 3 waves) – 3. Asian and Latin American integration in the late Twentieth and early twenty-first centuries © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Possibilism v. Environmental Determinism • aspects of physical geography, particularly climate/vegetation, influenced the psychological mind-set of individuals, which in turn defined the behavior and culture of the society that those individuals formed. • Possibilism- theory in geography that human behavior, and therefore culture, is not merely determined by the environment but by human agency and innovation
Language Family Map
Language Family Trees Fig. 5 -3: Family trees and estimated numbers of speakers for the main world language families.
Major Language Families Percentage of World Population Fig. 5 -11 a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.
Kurgan Theory of Indo-European Origin Marija Gimbutas postulated: • Kurgan people came from steppe region of Russia and Kazakhstan • 3500 -2500 BC • used horses as weapons to conquer much of Europe and South Asia • In short, war and conquest spread language Fig. 5 -9: In the Kurgan theory, Proto-Indo-European diffused from the Kurgan hearth north of the Caspian Sea, beginning about 7, 000 years ago.
Anatolian Hearth Theory of Indo. European Origin Fig. 5 -10: In the Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European originated in Turkey around 2, 000 years before the Kurgans and diffused through agricultural expansion.
Self-Sufficiency Approach • Also known as “balanced growth” • Elements – Country spreads investment equally across all sectors and regions of its economy – High tariffs protect domestic industries – Price supports (subsidies) for farmers – Reducing poverty is primary goal • Problems – Inefficiency – Large (and expensive) bureaucracies
Rostow’s Dev. Model 1. Traditional society – High % of labor force in agri – Output consumed by producers (subsistence) – Wealth used for “nonproductive” activities • Military • Religion
Rostow’s Dev. Model 2. Preconditions for takeoff – Elite group initiate innovated econ activities – Investment in new tech and infrastructure for specific industries – Goal is to prepare this industry to compete in world markets
Rostow’s Dev. Model 3. Takeoff – Rapid growth in area of investment • Industry develops • Infrastructure develops to support it – Labor force moves from farming to urban manufacturing – Rest of econ still traditional
Rostow’s Dev. Model 4. Drive to Maturity – Modern tech diffuse to wide variety of industries • Making more industries better able to compete in world market – Education and skills diffused to wide segments of population – Entrepreneur class beginning to generate and operate on own
Rostow’s Dev. Model 5. Age of Mass consumption – Shift of econ from heavy industry to consumer goods – Country is now developed – Examples of countries using this: Japan, Asian Tigers, Saudi Arabia, UAE, etc(SW Asia countries) who focus on OIL industry
Which basic shape are they? Can you name the country? Do you know the pro’s and con’s of each shape? 2 1 3 4 5
Government Systems • Democracy • Autocracy : monarchy or dictatorship • Anocracy: combination of demo and auto • • • Theocracy? Government by religion. Example? Islamic Republic of Iran, Vatican City Oligarchy? Rule by a few
Governments… • Federal v. Unitary • Unitary System: most power placed with the central government. Examples? • China, Cuba, France, Yemen, Afghanistan • Most countries fit here • Federal System: power is allocated from a central government to smaller regional units • USA, Russia, Pakistan, Australia, Switzerland, Brazil, Iraq
• EXCLAVE- a bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state. • Example: Nakhijaven, Azerbaijan • ENCLAVE- any small, relatively homogenous group, region or state surrounded by another larger region or state • Example: Lesotho
C is A's exclave, and B's enclave
Theories of global power Hegemony • Heartland Theory: • Sir Halford Mackinder (early 20 th century) • The Eurasian landmass is the world’s heartland/center and thus the key to world domination • Rimland Theory: Nicholas Spykman • The Eurasian rim, not its heart, is the key to global power
Other economic theories • Dependency Theory- based on an idea that countries on the periphery provide resources to countries in the core. A reaction to Rostow’s modernization • World Systems Theory- based on the idea of core, periphery and semi-periphery– creating the international division of labor. Does not focus on nations/states– but global or macro analysis
• Least Cost Theory- businesses will locate where profit is maximized based on labor, transportation, and agglomeration. • Locational Interdependence Theory- that business competitors, in trying to maximize profits, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base. Example? • mattress anyone?
• 1 st Agricultural Revolution • (Neolithic Revolution between 10 -12, 000 years ago), invention of agriculture- rise of civilization • 2 nd Agricultural Revolution • ( coincided with IR), better farming techniques and tools– shift from subsistence to commercial ag. • 3 rd Agricultural Revolution • (mid 20 th Century)- biotechnology, use of science and chemicals, genetically modified seeds, etc.
Von Thünen Model & Access to Markets Fig. 10 -13: Von Thünen’s model shows how distance from a city or market affects the choice of agricultural activity in (a) a uniform landscape and (b) one with a river.
Burgess Concentric Zone Model Middle Class Immigrant / Low Income Housing Working Class Housing Suburbia Fig. 13 -5: In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings surrounding the CBD.
Similarities b/t Burgess Model & von Thunen Model Prior to the development of modern transportation systems, how was the cost of land affected by its distance from market? How has modern transportation systems affected the cost of land relative to its distance from market?
Sector Model Fig. 13 -6: In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors extending out from the CBD.
Multiple Nuclei Model Fig. 13 -7: The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers, around which different people and activities cluster.
Creation of a border • Phase 1: definition- when the exact location is legally described an negotiated • Phase 2: delimitation: when the boundary is drawn onto a map • Phase 3: demarcation: when the boundary is visibly marked on a landscape with a fence, wall, sign, etc.
Core and Periphery
United Nations Millennium Goals • • • Millennium Development Goals Eight Goals for 2015 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2 Achieve universal primary education 3 Promote gender equality and empower women 4 Reduce child mortality 5 Improve maternal health 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7 Ensure environmental sustainability 8 Develop a global partnership for development
Helpful video links • http: //www. mapsofwar. com/ind/history-ofreligion. html • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=4 Bbk. Qi Qya. Yc • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=l. AXlad. J wb. OI
Review links • www. collegeboard. com AP, AP Central, Human Geography, Exam Information, • www. studystack. com Human Geography study cards and games • www. quizlet. com Human Geography vocabulary
Vocabulary- Development • • • Agglomeration Alfred Weber Backwash effect Bulk/Weight gaining Bulk/weight reducing Commodification Comparative advantage Conglomerate corporation Dependency theory Development gap Footloose industries • • • • GDP High-tech corridor Industrialization Informal sector Multinational corporation New international division of labor Nongovernmental organization North-South Split Quaternary Secondary Spatially variable costs Special economic zone Substitution principle
Remittance Vocabulary: Replacement level fertility Population/Migration Seasonal movement 1 st Agricultural Space-time Revolution compression 2 nd Agricultural Spatial Interaction Revolution Net-in migration Step migration Graying NIR TFR population One-child policy Thomas Malthus Infrastructure Pandemic Transhumance Intervening Place desirability obstacle Underpopulation Population Involuntary explosion migration Physiological Migration density Pull-factor
Vocabulary—Culture • • • • Acculturation Assimilation Caste system Christianity Cultural geography Cultural landscape Culture complex Culture hearth Denomination Diaspora Ethnic religion Ethnocentrism Genocide • Independent innovation • Islam • Judaism • Koran/Q’uran • Nonmaterial components • Perceptual regions • Polytheistic • Possibilism • Relocation diffusion • Siddhartha Gautama • Standard language • Stimulus diffusion • Theocracy
Vocabulary – Political Geography • • • Benelux Centripetal forces Compact Delimitation Ethnonationalism Federalism Forward Capital Frontier Geopolitics Heartland Theory Imperialism Median line principle • Mercantilism • Multinational state Nation New World Order Operational boundary dispute Perforated Sovereignty State Subsequent boundary Territorial morphology Territoriality Warsaw Pact World-systems analysis
Vocab. Agriculture/Rural Land • • • • Agribusiness Agriculture Capital-Intensive farming Commercial farming Dairying Debt-for-nature swaps Double cropping Enclosure movement Extensive subsistence ag. 1 st Agricultural Revolution Green Revolution Hunters and gatherers Intensive Subsistence Mediterranean Ag. Milkshed Mixed crop and livestock Plantation agriculture Ranching Seed Agriculture Shifting cultivation Slash and Burn Third Agricultural Rev. Transhumance Undernutrition Vegetative planting
Settlements/Urbanization • • • • Bid-rent curve CBD • Cumulative causation • Edge city • Ghettoization • Hinterland • Megacity • Megalopolis Micropolitan statistical area • • Periferico • Primacy • Racial steering Range of goods Shock city • Spatial competition Squatter settlement Street morphology Suburbanization Threshold Uneven development Urban banana Urban hierarchy Urbanization World city Zone in transition