Social Institutions GuleNayab Social Institutions Social institutions are

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Social Institutions Gul-e-Nayab

Social Institutions Gul-e-Nayab

Social Institutions • Social institutions are standardized patterns of rule-governed behavior. • They include

Social Institutions • Social institutions are standardized patterns of rule-governed behavior. • They include the family, education, religion, economic and political institutions.

3 Basic Aspects of Social Institutions • Social institutions are usually conceived as the

3 Basic Aspects of Social Institutions • Social institutions are usually conceived as the basic focuses of social organization, dealing with some of the basic universal problems of social life. • Three basic aspects of social institutions are: ▫ First, the patterns of behavior which are regulated by institutions deal with some basic problems of any society.

3 Basic Aspects of Social Institutions ▫ Second, institutions involve the regulation of behavior

3 Basic Aspects of Social Institutions ▫ Second, institutions involve the regulation of behavior of individuals in society according to some definite, continuous, and organized patterns. ▫ Finally, these patterns involve a definite normative ordering and regulation; that is, regulation is upheld by norms and by sanctions which are legitimized by these norms.

Major Perspectives Functionalist theory The functionalist perspective is based largely on the works of

Major Perspectives Functionalist theory The functionalist perspective is based largely on the works of (Herbert Spencer, etal) According to functionalism, society is a system of interconnected parts that work together in harmony to maintain a state of balance and social equilibrium for the whole. • The social institutions fulfill prerequisites and are essential. functional

Conflict theory This perspective is derived from the works of Karl Marx, who saw

Conflict theory This perspective is derived from the works of Karl Marx, who saw society as fragmented into groups that compete for social and economic resources. • Social institutions tend to reinforce inequalities and uphold the power of dominant groups. • Emphasizes divisions and conflicts within social institutions.

Social Institutions

Social Institutions

1. The Family: • A socially defined set of relationships between at least two

1. The Family: • A socially defined set of relationships between at least two people related by birth, marriage, adoption, or, in some definitions, long-standing ties of intimacy. • Functionalist theory: Functions of the family include socializing children, providing basic necessities and reproduction, distributing resources, providing social support.

2. Education • A formal process in which knowledge, skills, and values are systematically

2. Education • A formal process in which knowledge, skills, and values are systematically transmitted from one individual or group to another. • Functionalist theory: Functions of education include transmitting shared values and beliefs, transmitting specific knowledge and skills, sorting individuals based on skill, and establishing social control over youths. • Conflict theory: Educational tracking systems and other differential treatment of students reinforce social inequalities.

3. Religion: • A unified system of beliefs the right way to live that

3. Religion: • A unified system of beliefs the right way to live that is shared by a group of believers. Sociologists treat religion as a social rather than supernatural phenomenon. • Functionalist theory: Functions of religion include providing meaning for life, reinforcing social norms, strengthening social bonds, and marking status changes (e. g. , marriage).

4. Economic Institutions: • Sociologists understand the economy as the set of arrangements by

4. Economic Institutions: • Sociologists understand the economy as the set of arrangements by which a society produces, distributes, and consumes goods, services, and other resources. • Economic organization (the means and relations of production) determines the major features of any society. • Functionalist theory: Functions of economic institutions include: production and distribution of goods, assignment of individuals to different social roles such as occupations.

5. Political Institutions: • Institutions that pertain to the governance of a society, its

5. Political Institutions: • Institutions that pertain to the governance of a society, its formal distribution of authority, its use of force, and its relationships to other societies and political units. • an important political institution in modern societies, is the apparatus of governance over a particular territory. • Functionalist theory: Functions of political institutions include protection from external enemies, resolving group conflicts, defining societal goals, and strengthening group identity and norms.

Karl Marx • The philosopher, social scientist, historian and revolutionary, Karl Marx, is without

Karl Marx • The philosopher, social scientist, historian and revolutionary, Karl Marx, is without a doubt the most influential socialist thinker to emerge in the Nineteenth Century. • Although he was largely ignored by scholars in his own lifetime, his social, economic and political ideas gained rapid acceptance in the socialist movement after his death in 1883.

Social Stratification • Stratification describes the way in which different groups of people are

Social Stratification • Stratification describes the way in which different groups of people are placed within society. • The status of people is often determined by how society is stratified - the basis of which can include; ▫ Wealth and income ▫ Social class ▫ Ethnicity ▫ Gender ▫ Political status ▫ Religion (e. g. the caste system in India)

Four Basic Principles • Social stratification is based on four basic principles: 1. Social

Four Basic Principles • Social stratification is based on four basic principles: 1. Social stratification is a trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences 2. Social stratification carries over from generation to generation 3. Social stratification is universal but variable 4. Social stratification involves not just inequality but beliefs as well.

Organization of Modern Western Societies • In Modern Western Societies, stratification is broadly organized

Organization of Modern Western Societies • In Modern Western Societies, stratification is broadly organized into three main layers: upper class, Middle class & Lower class • Each of these classes can be further subdivided into smaller classes e. g occupational

1. Property • The basis of social stratification is property. • Karl Marx assigned

1. Property • The basis of social stratification is property. • Karl Marx assigned industrial society two major and one minor classifications: 1. The bourgeoisie (capitalist class), 2. Petite bourgeoisie (small capitalist class), 3. Proletariat (worker class)

 • Capitalists are those who own the methods of production and employ others

• Capitalists are those who own the methods of production and employ others to work for them. • Workers are those who do not own the means of production, do not hire others, and thus are forced to work for the capitalists. • Small capitalists are those who own the means of production but do not employ others.

2. Power • The second basis of social stratification is power. • That is,

2. Power • The second basis of social stratification is power. • That is, having power is positively correlated with being rich, as evidenced by the domination of wealthy person in high‐ranking governmental positions. • Wealthier people are more likely to be politically active. In contrast, poorer people are less likely to be politically active.

3. Prestige • A final basis of social stratification is the unequal distribution of

3. Prestige • A final basis of social stratification is the unequal distribution of prestige, or an individual's status among his or her peers and in society. • Although property and power are objective, prestige is subjective, for it depends on other people's perceptions and attitudes. • And while prestige is not as tangible as money and influence, most people want to increase their status and honor as seen by others.

Class and Caste Difference • A principle difference between class and caste is that

Class and Caste Difference • A principle difference between class and caste is that class is open for all and social mobility is possible. • In the caste system the vertical mobility is not possible. • Caste has religious background and everybody tries to fulfill the caste duties, but in class system of social stratification religion has no place.

 • Caste and Class jointly determine the position of an individual in social

• Caste and Class jointly determine the position of an individual in social strain. • Particularly in rural communities caste system has maintained its rigidity. • Even in the urban society a constant tendency to make caste distinction is observed in the upper and middle classes. • Thus the castes have maintained their importance in class system of social stratification.

Difference between Caste and Class: S. No 1 2 3 4 5 Caste Membership

Difference between Caste and Class: S. No 1 2 3 4 5 Caste Membership of a cast is hereditary and no amount or struggle and change it. There is no social mobility. Members are normally not conscious of their social status. Caste system expects members of follow certain customs, folkways, rituals etc. Inter-caste marriage is not possible, because it will earn wrath of society Class A person is placed class by virtue of his acquisition of education, wealth or other achievement. Social mobility is possible, i. e. it is possible to improve social status Members are generally conscious of their social status. Social class has no prescribed customs rituals and folkways Marriage between two individuals belonging to different classes is possible without earning displeasure of the society

S. No 6 7 8 9 Caste system is based on inferiority or superiority

S. No 6 7 8 9 Caste system is based on inferiority or superiority of human beings. Therefore, does not promote democracy. In caste system the members must follow a particular religion. Caste system is a closed class system in which hereditary status is the life time status. In caste system, there is no occupational mobility, i. e. one has to follow occupation of ancestors and it cannot be changed Class Social classes are based on superiority or inferiority of social status of an individual. Social classes help in working of democracy. Members of social classes may follow any religion Social classes are open class system in which movement from one class to another is completely unrestricted. As a member of social class one can adopt any occupation and change it at will.

S. No Caste Social gap between 10 members of different castes is too wide.

S. No Caste Social gap between 10 members of different castes is too wide. Caste system is supported 11 on religious grounds as a manifestation of God’s will. Class Social gap is not so wide as in class system. Social classes have no such religious a support.

Thank You

Thank You