PY 3107 An Introduction to Psychometrics Assessment and

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PY 3107: An Introduction to Psychometrics, Assessment and Ethics Lecture 1 Lidia Suárez lidia.

PY 3107: An Introduction to Psychometrics, Assessment and Ethics Lecture 1 Lidia Suárez lidia. [email protected] edu. sg 1

Lecture 1: Overview Introduction to the Subject. Introduction to Psychological Testing. Test Administration. Test

Lecture 1: Overview Introduction to the Subject. Introduction to Psychological Testing. Test Administration. Test Interviewing. Chapters 1, 7, & 8 2

Introduction to the Subject Textbook Kaplan, R. M. , & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2009).

Introduction to the Subject Textbook Kaplan, R. M. , & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2009). Psychological testing: Principles, applications, and issues (7 th ed. ). Belmont: Wadsworth. Should be available from bookshop & library. Lectures based on 7 th Edition. You may also use the 6 th Edition to study. 3

Introduction to the Subject Assessment 1. Mid-semester quiz 25% - 50 MCQ, 1 hour

Introduction to the Subject Assessment 1. Mid-semester quiz 25% - 50 MCQ, 1 hour - During Lecture 4 (22 nd July 2010) - Covers material from Lectures and Tutorial 1 -3, and related readings 2. Written Assignment: Test Review 30% - Critically review a psychological test (1500 -2000 words) - Due Tutorial 7 (25 th August 2010) 3. Examination - 100 MCQ, 2 hours 45% 4

Introduction to the Subject Policy on late assignments The policy of this school is

Introduction to the Subject Policy on late assignments The policy of this school is to impose a penalty for late submission of essays or other assignments. Marks will be subtracted from the awarded mark at the rate of 5% of the value of the assessable work per day. 5

Introduction to the Subject Policy on English Competency Please seek help if necessary. Contact

Introduction to the Subject Policy on English Competency Please seek help if necessary. Contact Dr. Denise Dillon if necessary. 6

Introduction to the Subject Policy on Plagiarism Zero Tolerance Policy!!! Zero marks. Possible to

Introduction to the Subject Policy on Plagiarism Zero Tolerance Policy!!! Zero marks. Possible to appeal. If caught again, same as above but possible expulsion from course. http: //www. jcu. edu. au/student/assess ment/plagiarism/index. htm 7

Introduction to the Subject Tutorials TA: Robyn Youie Wednesday 09: 00 – 12: 00

Introduction to the Subject Tutorials TA: Robyn Youie Wednesday 09: 00 – 12: 00 • TB: Manisha Agarwal Wednesday 19: 00 – 22: 00 • 8

Introduction to the Subject Learn. JCU Information on the course. Announcements. Additional documents. Links

Introduction to the Subject Learn. JCU Information on the course. Announcements. Additional documents. Links to web sites. Communication options ◦ Discussion Board General Critique 9

Introduction to the Subject Overview Most psychologists will be involved in testing. Aim to

Introduction to the Subject Overview Most psychologists will be involved in testing. Aim to provide a broad familiarity with tests and test concepts. Base for the development of specific skills later in career. 10

Introduction to the Subject Learning Goals Awareness of the strengths and limitations in the

Introduction to the Subject Learning Goals Awareness of the strengths and limitations in the use of testing. Knowledge of the principles of test construction and an ability to interpret the psychometric properties of tests. Awareness of the legal and ethical issues associated with the use of psychological tests. Knowledge of the different purposes for which tests are available and exposure to examples from a range of tests. 11

Introduction to Psychological Testing Learning Objective Understand testing. what is psychological Acquire knowledge about

Introduction to Psychological Testing Learning Objective Understand testing. what is psychological Acquire knowledge about various types of psychological tests. Example: CES-D. 12

Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory Psychological constructs. Psychometric Theory provides researchers and psychologists

Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory Psychological constructs. Psychometric Theory provides researchers and psychologists with mathematical models used in considering responses to individual test items, entire tests, and sets of tests (Corsini & Auerbach, 1998). Example of some statistical techniques employed to verify psychometric hypotheses. 13

Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory The following table shows the results of 6

Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory The following table shows the results of 6 students in one exam that has been marked by 2 different markers. Marker 1 Student Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 1 9 6 6 2 2 9 5 4 0 3 8 9 5 8 4 7 6 5 4 5 7 3 2 3 6 10 8 7 7 Marker 2 Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 8 2 8 1 7 5 9 5 10 6 9 10 9 8 9 4 7 4 5 1 7 7 10 9 - Do the two assessments agree with each other? - What score should be given to each student? - How could we assign a grade? - Which question was the most difficult? 14

Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory First we introduce the data in PASW 15

Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory First we introduce the data in PASW 15

Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory - Do the two assessments agree with each

Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory - Do the two assessments agree with each other? 1. Compute new variables: Sum_Score_Marker 1 Sum_Score_Marker 2 16

Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory 2. Perform a correlation. 17

Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory 2. Perform a correlation. 17

- Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory What score should be given to each

- Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory What score should be given to each student? 18

- Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric How should we assign a grade? Theory 19

- Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric How should we assign a grade? Theory 19

- Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory Which question was the most difficult? 1.

- Introduction to Psychological Testing Psychometric Theory Which question was the most difficult? 1. Compute new variables: Sum_Question_1 Sum_Question_2 Sum_Question_3 Sum_Question_4 20

Introduction to Psychological Testing Definition of Test: a set of items designed to measure

Introduction to Psychological Testing Definition of Test: a set of items designed to measure characteristics of human beings in relation to overt (observable) or covert (e. g. , feelings, attitudes) behaviour. Use: To obtain information fast and comparable to a reference group. Scales aid interpretation of test scores by relating raw scores on test items to a defined theoretical or empirical distribution. 21

Introduction to Psychological Testing Definition of Test Provide a sample of behaviour. Measure past

Introduction to Psychological Testing Definition of Test Provide a sample of behaviour. Measure past or present behaviour, or predict future behaviour. Performance may be related to ◦ traits or enduring tendencies ◦ or the state of an individual 22

Introduction to Psychological Testing Competency Requirements for Test Use • Psychological tests are those

Introduction to Psychological Testing Competency Requirements for Test Use • Psychological tests are those that only a registered psychologist is able to buy. • Test suppliers require evidence that the prospective purchaser is a registered psychologist. 23

Introduction to Psychological Testing Responsibilities of the Psychologists are held accountable for the professional

Introduction to Psychological Testing Responsibilities of the Psychologists are held accountable for the professional judgments they make. They may rely on tests, but ◦ This does not absolve them from the responsibility for their professional opinions. ◦ Selection and interpretation of tests is the responsibility of the psychologist not the test supplier. 24

Introduction to Psychological Testing Some Psychological Tests Require professional training before administration. Conceptual understanding

Introduction to Psychological Testing Some Psychological Tests Require professional training before administration. Conceptual understanding before results can be meaningfully interpreted. Without such, testing may result in damage to the client breaching the first ethical rule of ‘no harm to the client’. www. deltabravo. net/custody/misuse. php 25

Introduction to Psychological Testing Type of Tests Individual Tests Administered by a single examiner

Introduction to Psychological Testing Type of Tests Individual Tests Administered by a single examiner to one person. Group Tests Administered by a single examiner to several persons. 26

Intelligence Tests Measure to ◦ ◦ a person’s general potential solve problems adapt to

Intelligence Tests Measure to ◦ ◦ a person’s general potential solve problems adapt to change think abstractly profit from experience 27

Uses of Intelligence Tests Measure cognitive ability. Ancillary uses such as ◦ Clinical assessment

Uses of Intelligence Tests Measure cognitive ability. Ancillary uses such as ◦ Clinical assessment ◦ Memory ◦ Brain dysfunction ◦ Deterioration with age 28

Achievement Tests Measure previous learning ◦ e. g. , multiple choice exam in this

Achievement Tests Measure previous learning ◦ e. g. , multiple choice exam in this subject. 29

Aptitude Tests Measure the person’s potential for learning, e. g. , acquiring a new

Aptitude Tests Measure the person’s potential for learning, e. g. , acquiring a new skill. - For example, musical aptitude, potential to learn to play the piano if lessons taken. 30

Personality Tests Measure the tendency of a person to behave or respond in particular

Personality Tests Measure the tendency of a person to behave or respond in particular way in a given situation. ◦ -Structured (e. g. self -report with defined response options) Cattell 16 PF Eysenck Personality Inventory California Personality Inventory ◦ -Unstructured ◊ Projective tests (e. g. Rorschach test) 31

Psychomotor Tests Test neurological and sensory functioning ◦ Some require special tracking and monitoring

Psychomotor Tests Test neurological and sensory functioning ◦ Some require special tracking and monitoring equipment. ◦ Paper and pencil tests (e. g. Bender. Gestalt). ◦ Halstead-Reitan and Luria Psychomotor battery test selected aspects of neuropsychological functioning. 32

Educational Tests Cognitive functioning (linguistic, quantitative, spatial and creative thinking). Tests of specific ability

Educational Tests Cognitive functioning (linguistic, quantitative, spatial and creative thinking). Tests of specific ability (reading ability used for diagnostic and remedial work). 33

Vocational Tests Eg. Holland Vocational preference. Computer packages SIGIPLUS (System of Interactive Guidance and

Vocational Tests Eg. Holland Vocational preference. Computer packages SIGIPLUS (System of Interactive Guidance and Information). ◦ Self-assessment ◦ Practical suggestions ◦ Skills ◦ Preferences 34

Test Administration Learning Objectives Awareness of factors which may influence an examinee’s performance on

Test Administration Learning Objectives Awareness of factors which may influence an examinee’s performance on tests, and potential sources of error in behavioural assessment. Knowledge of the advantages of using computer-assisted test administration. 35

Test Administration The Examiner and the Subject Factors influencing test performance The relationship. Race

Test Administration The Examiner and the Subject Factors influencing test performance The relationship. Race of the tester. Language of the test taker. Training. Expectancy effects. Reinforcement of responses. Mode of administration & Computerassisted. Person variables. 36

Test Administration Behavioural Assessment Methodology Reactivity. Drift. Expectancies. Halo effect. Rating accuracy. 37

Test Administration Behavioural Assessment Methodology Reactivity. Drift. Expectancies. Halo effect. Rating accuracy. 37

Interviewing Techniques Learning Objectives • Acquisition of skills in regard to effective interviewing such

Interviewing Techniques Learning Objectives • Acquisition of skills in regard to effective interviewing such as professional attitude, responses to avoid, responses to facilitate interaction flow and empathic responses. 38

Interviewing Techniques Learning Objectives To be able to distinguish between different types of interviews

Interviewing Techniques Learning Objectives To be able to distinguish between different types of interviews for the purposes of evaluation, mental status examination, employment decisions. To be able to distinguish between structured vs. unstructured formats. 39

Interviewing Techniques Interviews Structured. Unstructured. 40

Interviewing Techniques Interviews Structured. Unstructured. 40

Interviewing Techniques Effective Interview Proper Attitude. Avoid: Evaluative statements Probing statements Hostile statements Reassuring

Interviewing Techniques Effective Interview Proper Attitude. Avoid: Evaluative statements Probing statements Hostile statements Reassuring statements 41

Interviewing Techniques Effective Interview Open vs. close ended questions. Responses to facilitate interaction flow:

Interviewing Techniques Effective Interview Open vs. close ended questions. Responses to facilitate interaction flow: ◦ Verbatim playback ◦ Paraphrasing and restatement responses ◦ Summarising and clarification responses ◦ Empathy (5 -point classification) 42

Interviewing Techniques 5 -point classification scheme for empathic responses Level-one responses (no relationship to

Interviewing Techniques 5 -point classification scheme for empathic responses Level-one responses (no relationship to the interviewee’s response) Level-two responses (superficial awareness of meaning of statement) Level-three responses (paraphrasing, verbatim playback, clarification statements, restatement responses) 43

Interviewing Techniques 5 -point classification scheme for empathic responses Level-four responses (interviewer adds noticeably

Interviewing Techniques 5 -point classification scheme for empathic responses Level-four responses (interviewer adds noticeably to interviewee’s response) Level-five responses (interviewer adds significantly to interviewee’s responses) 44

Interviewing Techniques Types of Interviews Evaluation interview. Structured clinical interview. ◦ (Structured Clinical Interview

Interviewing Techniques Types of Interviews Evaluation interview. Structured clinical interview. ◦ (Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM SCID) Case history interview. Mental status examination. Employment interview. 45

Interviewing Techniques Source of Error Interview validity ◦ Halo effect, cultural differences, general appearance.

Interviewing Techniques Source of Error Interview validity ◦ Halo effect, cultural differences, general appearance. Interview reliability ◦ Structured vs. unstructured interviews. ◦ Examiner bias or focus. 46