Microlensing Observation in Antrophysics MOA searching Dark Mater

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Microlensing Observation in Antrophysics (MOA), searching Dark Mater and Extra-Solar planet Nagoya Univ. Solar-Terrestrial

Microlensing Observation in Antrophysics (MOA), searching Dark Mater and Extra-Solar planet Nagoya Univ. Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Takahiro Sumi

 • Light from the source star is bent by the gravity of the

• Light from the source star is bent by the gravity of the lens object like Black hall. • Lens object as though optical lens, magnify the light from background star. Amplification Gravitational Microlensing Earth Time     Lens Object Star

Point mass lens

Point mass lens

Halo Dark Matter • There ~10 times more dark matter than visible mass. •

Halo Dark Matter • There ~10 times more dark matter than visible mass. • If they are MAssive Compact Halo Object (MACHO), they can be observed by Microlensing.

MACHO project 1. 28 m telescope 1. 8 million stars

MACHO project 1. 28 m telescope 1. 8 million stars

First Microlensing event by MACHO & EROS

First Microlensing event by MACHO & EROS

MACHO 2 years, Alcock et al. 1997

MACHO 2 years, Alcock et al. 1997

 • MACHO 5. 7 years 11. 9 million stars in the LMC reveals

• MACHO 5. 7 years 11. 9 million stars in the LMC reveals 13 -17 microlensing events • 0. 15 ~ 0. 9 M , f=20% 12 events: 16% of the mass of a standard Galactic halo. The detection exceeds the expected background of 2 events expected from ordinary stars in standard models of the Milky Way and LMC at the 99. 98% confidence level. (Bennett 2005)

Eros 5 years, Afonso et al. 400, p. 951 -956 (2003) • Less than

Eros 5 years, Afonso et al. 400, p. 951 -956 (2003) • Less than 25% of a standard halo can be composed of objects with a mass between 2 x 10 -7 M and 1 M at the 95% C. L.

EROS and MACHO Combined Limits on Planetary-Mass Dark Matter in the Galactic Halo, f<25%

EROS and MACHO Combined Limits on Planetary-Mass Dark Matter in the Galactic Halo, f<25% of the halo dark matter made of MACHO with 10 -7 -10 -3 M , for most models considered f< 10% for 3. 5× 10 -7 -4. 5× 10 -5 M. Alcock et al. (1998)

(1) MACHO? , Super. Macho (2) disk-bar or bar-bar self-lensing of the LMC? ,

(1) MACHO? , Super. Macho (2) disk-bar or bar-bar self-lensing of the LMC? , Super. Macho: 4 m telescope, 1/2 nights per 2 nights for 3 months over 5 years. ~30 events Center Outer

Super. MACHO

Super. MACHO

MOA 0. 6 m telescope (New Zealand/Mt. John Observatory ) Mirror : 0. 6

MOA 0. 6 m telescope (New Zealand/Mt. John Observatory ) Mirror : 0. 6 m CCD : 4 k x 6 k pix. FOV : 1. 3 square deg.

MOA-II 1. 8 m telescope (New Zealand/Mt. John Observatory ) At Mt. John Obs.

MOA-II 1. 8 m telescope (New Zealand/Mt. John Observatory ) At Mt. John Obs. in NZ, 44 S; Mirror : 1. 8 m CCD : 8 k x 10 k pix. FOV : 2. 2 square deg.

MOA-II LMC field

MOA-II LMC field

Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) Las Campanas Altitude: 2300 m Seeing ~ 1. 3”

Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) Las Campanas Altitude: 2300 m Seeing ~ 1. 3” OGLE-I : 1991~1996 : 1 m, 2 kx 2 k CCD OGLE-II : 1997~2000 : 1. 3 m, 2 kx 2 k CCD, 14’x 14’ OGLE-III: 2001~ : 1. 3 m, 8 kx 8 k mosaic CCD : 35’x 35’ 19 events 500 events 600 events/yr

Difference Image Analysis (DIA)

Difference Image Analysis (DIA)

Extra-Solar planet

Extra-Solar planet

1. Doppler method

1. Doppler method

2. Transit of Planet

2. Transit of Planet

2. Transit of Planet OGLE-III GC: 2001, 59 candidates (Udalski et al, 2002) Carina

2. Transit of Planet OGLE-III GC: 2001, 59 candidates (Udalski et al, 2002) Carina arm: 2002, 78 candiates, (Udalski et al. 2003) total: 137 5 (OGLE-TR-10, 56, 111, 113 and 132) were confirmed by radial velocity (Konacki et al. 2003, 2004, Bouchy et al. 2004, Pont et al. 2004)

3. Astrometry

3. Astrometry

4. Direct imaging

4. Direct imaging

Extra-Solar planet

Extra-Solar planet

Planetary system

Planetary system

Microlensing toward the Galactic Bulge

Microlensing toward the Galactic Bulge

MACHO-97 -BLG-41 Bennett et al. , 1999, Nature, 402, 57 Data by PLANET collaboration

MACHO-97 -BLG-41 Bennett et al. , 1999, Nature, 402, 57 Data by PLANET collaboration prefer rotating binary

MACHO 98 -BLG-35 Rhie et al. , 2000, Ap. J, 533, 378 q=7 x

MACHO 98 -BLG-35 Rhie et al. , 2000, Ap. J, 533, 378 q=7 x 10 -5

Possible Planetary Event OGLE-2002 -BLG-055 Jaroszynski & Paczynski 2002, Ac. A, 52, 361 Gaudi

Possible Planetary Event OGLE-2002 -BLG-055 Jaroszynski & Paczynski 2002, Ac. A, 52, 361 Gaudi & Han, 2004, astro-ph/0402417

Constrain of the abandance of planets Snodgrass et al. , 2004, MNRAS, 351, 967

Constrain of the abandance of planets Snodgrass et al. , 2004, MNRAS, 351, 967 Detection Probability 321 events in 2002 by OGLEIII a/RE=distance from lens

Constrain of the abundance of planets a/RE Detection Probability 321 events in 2002 by

Constrain of the abundance of planets a/RE Detection Probability 321 events in 2002 by OGLEIII Snodgrass et al. , 2004, MNRAS, 351, 967 Detection Probability in a/RE Detection Probability in a (AU) A (AU) Cool Jupiter( ) , Np<1/5. 5=18%

PLANET constrain PLANET collaboration followed up 43 events during 5 years 95%c. l. exclusion

PLANET constrain PLANET collaboration followed up 43 events during 5 years 95%c. l. exclusion contours for f=75, 66, 50, 33 and 25% (outer to inner) Albrow et al. , 2001, Ap. JL, 556, 113 Gaudi et al. , 2002, Ap. J, 566, 463

MOA-II Bulge field

MOA-II Bulge field

First planet via microlensing OGLE 2003 -BLG-235/MOA 2003 -BLG-53 Planet, mass ratio q=0. 0039

First planet via microlensing OGLE 2003 -BLG-235/MOA 2003 -BLG-53 Planet, mass ratio q=0. 0039 OGLE 2003 -BLG-235/MOA 2003 -BLG-53 was detected by the OGLE EWS System on June 22, 2003 and by the MOA group on July 21, 2003.  

2 nd & 3 rd planets OGLE-2005 -BLG-071. 1 MJupiter , Udalski et al.

2 nd & 3 rd planets OGLE-2005 -BLG-071. 1 MJupiter , Udalski et al. 2005 OGLE-2005 -BLG-169, 13 MEarth, Gould et al. 2006 “Cool Neptune" planets may be relatively common, with frequency of 16% at 90% confidence.

5 Earth Mass planet (Beaulieu et al. 2006, Nature, 439, 437)

5 Earth Mass planet (Beaulieu et al. 2006, Nature, 439, 437)

Sensitivety

Sensitivety

Summary • MACHO comprise ~16% of Dark Halo • MOA can solve if there

Summary • MACHO comprise ~16% of Dark Halo • MOA can solve if there is MACHO or not • MOA found 5 Earth mass Extra-Solar Planet • MOA will find an another Earth!

Animation of O 235/M 53

Animation of O 235/M 53

The Idea of binary and planetary event was first  suggested by Mao & Paczynski,

The Idea of binary and planetary event was first  suggested by Mao & Paczynski, 1991, Ap. JL, 374, 40 RE primary planet Source is at 8 kpc Primary : 1 Mo Secondary: 0. 1, 0. 001 Mo at 4 kpc <caustic>=0. 06 RE, assuming loga=const.

Constraints on the distance to O 235/M 53 and its mass x=Dlens/Dsource Using Main

Constraints on the distance to O 235/M 53 and its mass x=Dlens/Dsource Using Main sequence Mass-Luminosity relation, and Flens<Fblend, Dlens<5. 4 kpc(90%c. l. ) Then Likelihood was estimated by using Disk model & Proper motion.

Modeling the bar RCG magnitude RCG proper motiion + Optical depth, HST data

Modeling the bar RCG magnitude RCG proper motiion + Optical depth, HST data

Sensitivity of various methods l Microlensing have a potential to find statistically significant number

Sensitivity of various methods l Microlensing have a potential to find statistically significant number of Earth size planet at habitable zone. (important for TPF) Bennett, astro-ph/0404075