Fibers FIBERS Are considered class evidence Have probative

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Fibers

Fibers

FIBERS § Are considered class evidence § Have probative value § Are common trace

FIBERS § Are considered class evidence § Have probative value § Are common trace evidence at a crime scene § Can be characterized based on comparison of both physical and chemical properties 2

IDENTIFICATION AND COMPARISON OF SYNTHETIC FIBERS A. How much value a fiber has as

IDENTIFICATION AND COMPARISON OF SYNTHETIC FIBERS A. How much value a fiber has as evidence is related to the criminalist’s ability to trace its origin.

EVIDENTIAL VALUE OF FABRICS THAT CAN BE FITTED TOGETHER AT TORN EDGES: Individual Evidence!!

EVIDENTIAL VALUE OF FABRICS THAT CAN BE FITTED TOGETHER AT TORN EDGES: Individual Evidence!!

WHAT MOST COMMONLY OCCURS IS THAT A LIMITED NUMBER OF FIBERS ARE PRESENTED TO

WHAT MOST COMMONLY OCCURS IS THAT A LIMITED NUMBER OF FIBERS ARE PRESENTED TO THE EXAMINER:

THE POSSIBILITY OF MAKING A PHYSICAL MATCH IS NON-EXISTANT Is NONEXISTANT!!

THE POSSIBILITY OF MAKING A PHYSICAL MATCH IS NON-EXISTANT Is NONEXISTANT!!

THE EXAMINER MUST USE A SIDE BY SIDE COMPARISON.

THE EXAMINER MUST USE A SIDE BY SIDE COMPARISON.

FABRIC § Fabric is made of fibers. Fibers are made of twisted filaments §

FABRIC § Fabric is made of fibers. Fibers are made of twisted filaments § Types of fibers and fabric A. Natural—animal, vegetable or inorganic B. Artificial—synthesized or created from altered natural sources 8

TYPES OF FIBERS 9 Synthetic Natural §Rayon §Nylon §Acetate §Acrylic §Spandex §Polyester §Silk §Cotton

TYPES OF FIBERS 9 Synthetic Natural §Rayon §Nylon §Acetate §Acrylic §Spandex §Polyester §Silk §Cotton §Wool §Mohair §Cashmere

CLASSIFICATION Natural fibers are classified according to their origin: § Vegetable or cellulose §

CLASSIFICATION Natural fibers are classified according to their origin: § Vegetable or cellulose § cotton, rayon § Animal or protein § wool, silk § Mineral § asbestos, fiberglass 10

FIBER COMPARISON Can you tell the difference(s) between the cotton on the left and

FIBER COMPARISON Can you tell the difference(s) between the cotton on the left and the rayon on the right? 11

SYNTHETIC FIBERS (MADE FROM DERIVATIVES OF PETROLEUM, COAL AND NATURAL GAS) § Nylon—most durable

SYNTHETIC FIBERS (MADE FROM DERIVATIVES OF PETROLEUM, COAL AND NATURAL GAS) § Nylon—most durable of man-made fibers; extremely light weight § Polyester—most widely used manmade fiber § Acrylic—provides warmth from a lightweight, soft and resilient fiber § Spandex—extreme elastic properties 12

FABRIC PRODUCTION Fabrics are composed of individual threads or yarns, made of fibers, that

FABRIC PRODUCTION Fabrics are composed of individual threads or yarns, made of fibers, that are knitted, woven, bonded, crocheted, felted, knotted or laminated. Most are either woven or knitted. The degree of stretch, absorbency, water repellence, softness and durability are all individual qualities of the different fabrics. 13

POLYMERS § Synthetic fibers are made of polymers which are long chains of repeating

POLYMERS § Synthetic fibers are made of polymers which are long chains of repeating chemical units. § The word polymer means many (poly), units (mer). § The repeating units of a polymer are called monomers. § By varying the chemical structure of the monomers or by varying the way they are joined together, polymers are created that have different properties. § As a result of these differences, forensically they can be distinguished from one another. § Polymerization video 14

FIBER CROSS-SECTIONS Synthetic fibers are forced out of a nozzle when they are hot,

FIBER CROSS-SECTIONS Synthetic fibers are forced out of a nozzle when they are hot, and then they are woven. The holes of the nozzle are not necessarily round; therefore, the fiber may have a unique shape in cross-section. 15

TESTING FOR IDENTIFICATION; PART 1 § Microscopic observation § Dye composition---determine types of pigments

TESTING FOR IDENTIFICATION; PART 1 § Microscopic observation § Dye composition---determine types of pigments in dye § Thermal decomposition—gently heating to break down the fiber to the basic monomers § Burning—observation of how a fiber burns, the odor, color of flame, smoke and the appearance of the residue § Chemical tests—solubility and decomposition 16

PROCESS OF MICROSCOPIC COMPARISON 1. Compare color and diameter

PROCESS OF MICROSCOPIC COMPARISON 1. Compare color and diameter

IF THE COLOR AND DIAMETER ARE CONSISTENT… 2. A comparison of striations and pitting

IF THE COLOR AND DIAMETER ARE CONSISTENT… 2. A comparison of striations and pitting marks is made

THE SHAPES OF THE FIBERS ARE THEN COMPARED

THE SHAPES OF THE FIBERS ARE THEN COMPARED

DYE COMPOSITION Thin layer chromatography

DYE COMPOSITION Thin layer chromatography

OR MICROSPECTROPHOTOMETER mpares the exact wavelengths of visible light that the fiber abso

OR MICROSPECTROPHOTOMETER mpares the exact wavelengths of visible light that the fiber abso

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

DETERMINE (i) Class and (ii) sub-class of fabric

DETERMINE (i) Class and (ii) sub-class of fabric

TESTING FOR IDENTIFICATION; PART 2 § Density—mass of object divided by the volume of

TESTING FOR IDENTIFICATION; PART 2 § Density—mass of object divided by the volume of the object § Refractive Index—measuring the bending of light as it passes from air into a solid or liquid § Fluorescence—used for comparing fibers as well as spotting fibers for collection 24

COLLECTION OF FIBER EVIDENCE § Bag clothing items individually in paper bags. Make sure

COLLECTION OF FIBER EVIDENCE § Bag clothing items individually in paper bags. Make sure that different items are not placed on the same surface before being bagged. § Make tape lifts of exposed skin areas of bodies and any inanimate objects § Removed fibers should be folded into a small sheet of paper and stored in a paper bag. 25

FIBER EVIDENCE Fiber evidence in court cases can be used to connect the suspect

FIBER EVIDENCE Fiber evidence in court cases can be used to connect the suspect to the victim or to the crime scene. In the case of Wayne Williams, fibers weighed heavily on the outcome of the case. Williams was convicted in 1982 based on carpet fibers that were found in his home, car and on several murder victims. 26

Plain Weave

Plain Weave

Twill Weave

Twill Weave

Satin weave

Satin weave