Fibers Fibers Used to create a link between

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Fibers

Fibers

Fibers Used to create a link between a crime and a suspect l Form

Fibers Used to create a link between a crime and a suspect l Form of trace evidence l Direct transfer – fibers transferred directly from victim to suspect or vice versa l Secondary transfer – fibers transferred from an original source to a suspect and then to a victim l

Questions about Fibers What type of fiber? l Fiber color? l Number of fibers

Questions about Fibers What type of fiber? l Fiber color? l Number of fibers found? l Where fiber was found. l Textile the fiber originated from l Multiple fiber transfers? l Type of crime committed. l Time between crime and discovery of fiber l

Collection of Fibers l Fibers are collected with special vacuums, sticky tape and forceps

Collection of Fibers l Fibers are collected with special vacuums, sticky tape and forceps

Analysis of Fibers l Nondestructive l Polarizing light microscopy – can look at the

Analysis of Fibers l Nondestructive l Polarizing light microscopy – can look at the fiber using specific light wavelengths l Infrared spectroscopy – emits a beam that bounces off the material…how the beam changes reveals the chemical structure of the fiber, helpful for i. d. l Destructive l Burn test l Dissolving in solvents

Fiber Classification l l l Fibers are either natural or synthetic Natural fibers –

Fiber Classification l l l Fibers are either natural or synthetic Natural fibers – come from animals, plants and minerals that are mined from the ground Synthetic fibers – man-made fibers include rayon, acetate, nylon, acrylics and polyesters

Animal Fibers l l Used in clothing, carpets, decorative hangings and beddings Consist of

Animal Fibers l l Used in clothing, carpets, decorative hangings and beddings Consist of hair (wool from sheep, cashmere and mohair from goats, angora from rabbits), fur, and silk (collected from cocoons)

Plant Fibers Used in a number of household products l All plant fibers contain

Plant Fibers Used in a number of household products l All plant fibers contain cellulose which has different characteristics than animal fibers l l Cellulose is insoluble in water (won’t dissolve), resistant to damage from harsh chemicals, and can only be dissolved by very strong acids, like sulfuric acid

Plant Fibers (continued) l l Seed Fibers – cotton, found in seedpod of cotton

Plant Fibers (continued) l l Seed Fibers – cotton, found in seedpod of cotton plant. Used for clothing and household textiles Fruit Fibers – coir, fiber from the covering of coconuts. When woven, it is very strong and waterproof. Used for doormats and baskets

Plant Fibers (continued) Stem fibers – hemp, jute, flax. Flax is most common, found

Plant Fibers (continued) Stem fibers – hemp, jute, flax. Flax is most common, found in linen (clothes, tablecloths). Jute is coarse, used to make rope, mats and handbags. Hemp is becoming a popular alternative to cotton. l Leaf fibers – used as the twine on hay bales (deteriorate quickly) l Mineral fibers – ex, fiberglass, asbestos, both used for insulation l

Synthetic (man-made) Fibers l l Regenerated fibers (modified natural fibers) – derived from cellulose

Synthetic (man-made) Fibers l l Regenerated fibers (modified natural fibers) – derived from cellulose and are mostly plant in origin. Rayon, Celanese (used in carpets) and Capron (used in high-performance clothing) Synthetic polymer fiber – totally man-made. Polyester (found in polar fleece, wrinkleresistant pants), nylon (easily brokne down by light and acid), acrylic(inexpensive…pills easily), olefins (quick drying) used in thermal socks and carpets

Yarns l l Fibers that have been spun together Any given yarn will have

Yarns l l Fibers that have been spun together Any given yarn will have a direction of twist and the twist direction is helpful in identification.

Textiles Any flexible, flat material made by interlacing yarns (or “threads”) l Weaving –

Textiles Any flexible, flat material made by interlacing yarns (or “threads”) l Weaving – consists of arranging lengthwise threads (the warp) side by side and close together, weaved with crosswise threads (the weft) in one of several different patterns l

Weave Patterns l 1. Plain or tabby weave – checkerboard l l 2. Twill

Weave Patterns l 1. Plain or tabby weave – checkerboard l l 2. Twill weave l l One weft passes over three warps, then under one, with each row shifting over one (3/1 weave) 3. Satin weave l l Each weft passes over one warp before going under the next one (1/1 weave) One weft passes over three or more warps, then under one (3/1, 4/1, 5/1 or 6/1) Thread count – the number of threads packed together