- Slides: 71
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How DNA is stored in cells (what we call the tightly wound packages of DNA)
What are chromosomes?
The number of chromosomes in most cells in your body
What is 46?
A section of a chromosome that codes for the production of a particular protein
What is gene?
If we imagine a nucleus to be like a library filled with 46 books, what are the “chapters” of the books?
What are genes?
Rank the following from simplest/smallest (1) to most complex/largest (6) cell chromosome gene nitrogenous base nucleotide nucleus
What is: nitrogenous base (1) nucleotide (2) gene (3) chromosome (4) nucleus (5) cell (6)
The symbols of the 4 different bases in DNA
What are A, T, G and C
The sugar in DNA
What is deoxyribose sugar?
DAILY DOUBLE!!! The components of DNA’s backbone
What are deoxyribose sugar and phosphate molecules?
The charge on DNA and the component that gives it that charge
What is negative and phosphate molecules
The type and number of bonds that join a cytosine to a guanine base
What is 3 hydrogen bonds
The 2 men who won the Nobel Prize for the discovery of DNA’s structure
Who are Watson and Crick?
The scientist whose student took this famous X-ray
Who is Rosalind Franklin?
What this DNA proved about DNA’s nitrogenous bases
What is A pairs with T and C pairs with G?
DAILY DOUBLE!!! How Chargaff’s data helped Watson and Crick
What is it told them which bases to pair together in their model (A with T and C with G)
If 31% of the bases in a yeast cell are A, this percent are G
What is 19% (If 31% are A, then 31% are T, making 62% be A and T, so 38% leftover would be C & G. Half would be G and half of 38% is 19%)
The place in the body from which cells are typically extracted for DNA analysis
What is cheek?
The chemical mixed with water before swishing in the mouth (in order to help break cells away from cheek
What is salt?
Dish soap lyses cells. The literal meaning of the work lyse is what this.
What is break/split?
During DNA extraction, DNA precipitates. To precipitate means this.
What is “for a solid to form out of a solution”?
Of this list, the item you could be missing and still extract DNA Dishsoap Ethanol Food Coloring Salt Water
What is food coloring? (Yeah, sorry. I couldn’t think of a tough 500 pointer for this topic!)
The name (or abbreviation for the name) of the process used to amplify a sample of DNA
What is PCR?
What a restriction enzyme does to a strand of DNA
What is cuts it?
DAILY DOUBLE!!! Where restriction enzymes come from
What is bacteria?
This is a thermocycler. What process is it necessary for?
What is PCR?
The literal meaning of the word polymerase (provided by breaking it into the 3 roots)
What is “enzyme that makes many parts”? poly=many mer=parts ase=enzyme
The process by which DNA fragments can be separated
What is gel electrophoresis?
What pulls DNA across a gel (what it is attracted to)
What is electricity (or a positive charge)?
During electrophoresis, RFLPs get separated based on a difference in this property
What is SIZE?
Based on an understanding of the process of electrophoresis, it can be inferred that phore’s literal meaning is (choose one) a) To carry b) To break c) To combine d) To repel
What is “to carry”? (Electrophoresis literally means “the condition of being carried by electricity”)
A segment of DNA has two restriction sites–I and II. When incubated with restriction enzymes I and II, three fragments will be formed–a, b, and c. Which of the following gels produced by electrophoresis would represent the separation and identity of these fragments?
What is B? (B is shortest, so would go farthest and C is longest, so would travel the least)
Write a paragraph that meaningfully connects the following terms: cells chromosomes DNA genes proteins traits
EXAMPLE OF GOOD ANSWER: Human cells contain DNA that is tightly wound into 46 chromosomes. Each chromosome has many sections that are called genes. Each gene codes for a protein and the proteins that they code for determine an individual’s traits (height, eye color, etc).