- Slides: 60
World War I The Great War
Underlying Causes l l Militarism-the building up armies and navies Countries feel threatened and increase their military
Underlying Causes l l Alliances-defensive pacts between nations; Triple Entente and Triple Alliance Countries pledged assistance if member nation was attacked
Underlying Causes l l Nationalism-pride in one’s culture, race and/or ethnicity Many ethnic minorities wanted their own nation Nations competing to be the best Balkans- “powderkeg of Europe”
Underlying Causes l l l Imperialism-asserting control of weaker areas Europe had been competing for possessions in Africa and Asia Race to control the most area
Trigger Event-June 28, 1914 l l l Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand his wife by a Serbian nationalist(wanted Bosnia under Serbian rule) Austria Hungary blames Serbia for the assassination; issues ultimatums which go unmet All of the underlying factors come into play over the course of the next month
Gavrilo Princip l Why is Princip on of the most influential figures of the 20 th Century?
Causes of World War I
World War I begins-July 28, 1914 l l l l Austria-Hungary(with Germany’s support) declares war on Serbia Russia and France mobilize Germany declares war on Russia and France Germany attacks France through Belgium Britain declares war on Germany Allied Powers vs. Central Powers The Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join the Central Powers Italy joins the Allied Powers
Austria-Hungary l Rules over many ethnic minorities including Slavs who want their own nation (Pan Slavism) l Blames Serbia for the assassination l Issues ultimatums to Serbia which go unmet
Germany Kaiser Wilhelm l Allied with Austria-Hungary; also culturally similar l Gives Austria-Hungary full support (blank check ) to go to war l Orders Russia and France to demobilize; declares war on them
Russia Nicholas II and family l Considers itself the protector of all Slavic people in Europe l Mobilizes military to protect Serbia l Does not back down from German ultimatum
France Raymond Poincare l Mobilizes military to honor alliance with Russia l Wants to get back at Germany for loss in Franco-Prussian War l Does not back down from German ultimatum
Great Britain Prime Minister H. H. Asquith l Allied with Russia and France l Goes to war when Germany invades neutral Belgium; also to honor their agreement with Russia and France
New Technology Tank Machine gun Airplane Submarine
New Technology Poisonous gas Zeppelin Flamethrower l New technology increased the death and destruction of WWI
Trench Warfare War was fought on western and eastern fronts Battles fought to stalemates with little change in fronts l l
World War I Deaths
The Lusitania l How will this event affect U. S. views toward WWI?
Election of 1916 § What is Wilson promising Americans?
The Zimmerman Note
l How does this affect American attitudes toward WWI?
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare l Why does the U. S. disapprove of unrestricted sub warfare?
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare *How is Germany depicted in a negative light in this image?
Russian Revolution Nicholas II Vladimir Lenin Bolsheviks take over Russia and withdraw from the war.
Russian Withdrawal How does this help the Central Powers?
U. S. entry into World War I *unrestricted submarine warfare *interruption of trade *Russian withdrawal from the war *Preservation of democracy
The Homefront Selective Service Act
The Homefront War Industries Board What was the main responsibility of the WIB?
The Homefront National War Labor Board What labor issues would the NWLB be concerned with?
The Homefront What were the causes of the Great Migration?
Espionage and Sedition Acts l l Crimes Willfully causing insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny or refusal of duty in the military l Displaying disloyal, profane, scurrilous or abusive remarks about government, the flag or military uniforms Provide information with the intent to interfere with the success of the U. S. military or to promote the success of the enemy Punishments l $10, 000 fine l 20 -30 years in prison l Death
Espionage and Sedition Acts Convictions Walter Mathey-attended antiwar meeting; gave. 25 l Rev. Clarence Waldron-told people Christians could take no part in the war; 15 year prison term l Eugene V. Debs-speech opposing war; 10 year prison term l Charles Schenck-published documents urging citizens to avoid the draft; 15 year prison term l
Espionage and Sedition Acts To what extent should rights be limited during times of conflict?
Schenck v. U. S. l l *Antiwar and antidraft pamphlet of Charles Schenck
Schenck v. U. S. l l Charles Schenck
Schenck v. U. S. Oliver Wendell Holmes “The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing a panic. The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent. ”
US Patriotism Food and Fuel Administration
U. S. Patriotism l l l Wheatless Mondays Meatless Tuesdays Wheatless Wednesdays Porkless Thursdays Porkless/Sweetless Saturdays Gasless Sundays
Anti-German Euphemisms l l l Dachshund-liberty hound German measles-liberty measles German shepherd-Alsatian Hamburger-liberty sandwich/steak Sauerkraut-liberty cabbage Germans-Huns
U. S. Propaganda What was the purpose of the Committee on Public Information?
The Paris Peace-1919 The Big Four in Paris
The Fourteen Points l What were Wilson’s goals with the Fourteen Points?
The Fourteen Points l l l l No secret alliances/pacts Freedom of the seas Lower tariffs/fewer trade barriers Disarmament-reduction of weapons No more colonies Self-determination for new countries Correct boundaries for countries based on ethnicity
The League of Nations
The Treaty of Versailles
Article X l The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled. Why would Article X cause opposition in the U. S. Senate?
Reservationists Nothing compels the United States to ensure border contiguity or political independence of any nation, to interfere in foreign domestic disputes regardless of their status in the League, or to command troops or ships without Congressional declaration of war. Henry Cabot Lodge Why did Lodge want this added to the Treaty of Versailles?
Irreconcilables “There is another reason why I shall record my vote against this treaty…It imperils what I conceive to be the underlying and first principle of this republic. It is in conflict with the right of our people to govern themselves free from all restraint. ” William Borah Why were the irreconcilables against the Versailles Treaty?
Senate Debate l What precedent might have been used to justify Senate reaction to the League of Nations?
Senate Debate *What happens to the Versailles Treaty in the U. S. Senate?
U. S. isolationism
U. S. Isolationism
New Europe-1919 l What problems existed with the new map of Europe?
Effect of Versailles Treaty l l Why is the child crying? l Why are the Big Four indifferent to the child? l
The Future How did the Versailles Treaty do more harm than good?
Effects of World War I l l l l l U. S. solidifies itself as a world power A new Europe emerges; empires are broken up Creation of new countries in Europe Expansion of presidential power U. S. economic boom U. S. becomes isolationist in its foreign policy U. S. urban population grows Females and minorities gain economic power Women receive the right to vote Severe punishment causes German feelings of resentment