- Slides: 30
Total Quality Management Week # 13 JIT, Poka Yoka, & ISO Prepared by: Khalid Dahleez Faculty of Commerce – the Islamic University of Gaza This material was collected from different sources
Just in Time (JIT) • JIT comes from Japan, was known at the end of 1950 s. • JIT is a programme directed towards ensuring that the right quantities purchased or produced, at the right time, and that there is no waste. • JIT will not work without the umbrella of TQM. • A series of operating concepts that allows systematic identification of operational problems, • A series of technology-based tools for correcting problems following their identification. • A main requirement of JIT is that the suppliers are in the near of the purchaser’s place. • JIT it means also a reduction in inventory and transportation costs.
Just in Time (JIT) o Basically JIT is a program directed towards ensuring that the right quantities are purchased or produced at the right time, and there is no waste. o JIT fits well under the TQM umbrella, for many of the ideas and techniques are very similar and, moreover, JIT will not work without TQM in operation. o Writing down a definition of JIT for all types of organization is extremely difficult, because the range of products, services and organization structures leads to different impressions of the nature and scope of JIT.
Just-In-Time (JIT) system The concept of producing or conveying only those units needed, just when they are needed, in just the amount needed, at all stages of production. By Toyota Motor Company
Push & Pull Systems o Push System Material supplier Manufacturer Dealer Customer o Pull System Material supplier Manufacturer Dealer Customer
Planning for just-in-time (JIT) management The Kanban system o The word Kan means "visual" in Japanese and the word "ban" means "card". So Kanban refers to "visual cards" , but in the West it is generally taken to mean a card that signals the need to deliver or produce more parts or components. o The main feature of the Kanban system is that it pulls parts and components through the production processes when they are needed. o Each material, component, or part has its own special container designed to hold a precise, preferably small, quantity. o A Kanban system provides parts when they are needed but without guesswork, and therefore without the excess inventory that results from bad guesses. o A JIT program can succeed without a Kanban-based operation, but Kanbans will not function effectively independently of JIT.
Planning for just-in-time (JIT) management Just-in-Time Purchasing o The development of long-term relationships with a few suppliers, rather than short-term ones with many, leads to the concept of co-producers in networks of trust providing dependable quality and delivery of goods and services. o Each organization in the chain of supply is encouraged to extend JIT methods to its suppliers. o The requirements of JIT mean that suppliers are usually located near the purchaser’s premises, delivering small quantities, often several times per day, to match the usage rate.
Planning for just-in-time (JIT) management o The requirement for suppliers to be located near the buying organization, which places those at some distance at a competitive disadvantage, causes lead times to be shorter and deliveries to be more reliable. o It can be argued that JIT purchasing and delivery are suitable mainly for assembly line operations, and less so far certain process and service industries. o Nevertheless, there must be a recognition of the need to develop closer relationships and to begin the dialogue that leads to the product or service of the right quality, being delivered in the right quantity, at the right time.
Fool-proof (Poka-yoke) Note: “Poka” ----- Carelessness; Absent-mind “Yoke”----- Elimination This refers to the thoughtful use of devices which eliminates operator’s careless mistakes. • Make mistakes for counting, measuring, work sequence, setting, etc. • “I forgot things to do. ” “I missed the monitoring. ” • “I did something which I should not do. ”
(Poka-yoke) - Example The worker stirs the liquid in a tank and add some additives. “Did I already additives? ”
Poka-yoke Solution Before stirring the liquid, put additives in cups.
Documentation and Documented System, Why? The Keystone of Quality Management is met/done, when the Customer and Supplier are working together to reach their common advantage. Example: 5 persons ordered the same menu in a restaurant and each one get the same at the same time (the same taste, the same size, same shape, asf), “CONSISTENCY”. The Chef Cock had used the same “Equipment, Material, procedures”. The Process was under Control. The Chef Cock wants to open FIVE new restaurants and he wants to be sure that the same menu in each one has the same taste, asf (System Audit, System Review).
Documentation and Documented System, Why? A fully documented quality management system has always to ensure that the two following requirements are met: 1. The Customer’s Requirements 2. The Organisation's Requirements (internally, externally, and at optimum cost with optimum usage of the available resources) A Quality System is an assembly of components, such as the organisational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes for implementing TQM. The components are interacting with each other and within the system. Such interaction between materials and processes are very important as the components themselves.
Quality System Design • A quality should interact with all activities of the organisation, • It begins with the identification with the requirements, • It ends with the satisfaction AT EVERY TRANSACTION INTERFACE. The Activities could be classified as “Processing, Communicating, and Controlling and more specifically as: Marketing, Market Research, Design, Specifying, Development, Procurement, Process Planning, Process Development and Assessment, Process Operation and Control, Product or Service Testing, Packaging, Storage, Sales, Distribution, Technical Services, Maintenance, “RECYCLING”
Continual improvement of the quality management system Customers (and other interested parties) Management responsibility Measurement, analysis and improvement Resource management Satisfaction Requirements Input Key: Value adding activity information flow Source: BS EN ISO 9001: 2000 Product realization Product Output
Quality System Design It is very important that the system as it had been designed meets the requirements of an international standards. One Person alone can not document a quality system. A Quality Manual is a task of every one, who is involved in any working process to produce some thing or to deliver a service. No Process without data collection, No data collection without analysis, No analysis without decisions No decisions without actions.
Quality System Requirements A good Quality System will improve process control, reduce wastage, lower costs, increase market share, (or funding), facilitate training, increase staff participation, and raise morale. Environmental Management System must be a part of each good company (or organization). The activities needed in design and implementation of a good quality system start and end with the customer, in two spheres – a customer sphere and a supplier sphere Senior management in all types of industry must take responsibility for the adoption and documentation of the appropriate quality system in their organization.
Quality Certification Ø ISO 9000 Set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance, critical to international business Ø ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems Ø ISO 9000: 2000 QMS –Fundamentals and Vocabulary Ø ISO 9001: 2000 QMS – Requirements Ø ISO 9004: 2000 QMS-Guidelines for performance improvements 9 -19
ISO 9000: 2000 series o moved towards process performance metrics o reduced the need for documented procedures where clear evidence exists that the process is working well. 02 February 2007 MATS 324/iso 9000 -qfd. ppt
ISO 9000: 2000 series o standards provide criteria for companies to o "certify" their quality management n recertification is required every three years o achieve "registration" by third-party auditor. o the system n verifies practice and processes n provides objective 3 rd party validation n enables benchmarking.
ISO 9000: 2000 eight quality management principles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Customer focus Leadership Involvement of people Process approach System approach to management Continual improvement Factual approach to decision making Mutually beneficial supplier relationships
ISO 9000: 2000 structure o Four major sections n n Management Responsibility Resource Management Product Realisation Measurement, Analysis and Improvement o Divided into 21 elements
ISO 9000 structure I Management Responsibility 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. management commitment customer focus quality policy planning administration management review
ISO 9000 structure II Resource Management 7. provision of resources 8. human resources 9. facilities 10. work environment
ISO 9000 structure III Product Realisation 11. planning of realisation processes 12. customer-related processes 13. design and/or development 14. purchasing 15. production and service operations 16. control of measuring and monitoring devices
ISO 9000 structure IV Measurement, Analysis and Improvement 17. planning 18. measurement and monitoring 19. control of nonconformity 20. analysis of data 21. improvement
Summary of ISO 9000 ØQuality policy is a formal statement from management, closely linked to business and to customers needs ØQuality policy is understood at all levels and by all employees ØDocumentation and audits are conducted periodically ØRecords should show and where raw materials and products are processed to allow products and problems to be traced to the source
Summary of ISO 9000 ØMap all processes, monitor & control them ØMonitoring, measurement and analysis tools must be properly maintained and calibrated ØDetermine customer requirements and create systems for communicating with customer ØPerform periodic internal audits and meetings