- Slides: 61
Quality Management Gurus
Outline We have eight Gurus : 1. Deming 2. Juran 3. Crosby 4. Feigenbaum 5. Ishikawa 6. Garvin 7. Shingo 8. Taguchii _ Despite there are eight gurus in assessing total quality management , but there are differences in their opinions
Who is guru? “A Guru is a spiritual guide who is considered to have attained complete insight. “ www. wikipedia. com “A guru, by definition, is a good person, a wise person and teacher. A quality guru should be all of these, plus have a concept and approach to quality within business that has made a major and lasting impact. “ www. businessball. com
Three groups of gurus
Who was W. Edwards Deming • Dr. W. Edwards Deming is known as the father of the Japanese post-war industrial revival and was regarded by many as the leading quality guru in the United States. He passed on in 1993. • His expertise was used during World War II to assist the United States in its effort to improve the quality of war materials
Who was W. Edwards Deming - He got his PHD in the states in physics and math's Get his first employment chance in an electricity company in Chicago He taught physics , mathematics , statistics and quality in Japan. * Deming is best known for his management philosophy , establishing quality , productivity and competitive position.
Deming • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Deming focus on 5 ideas : Statistical process controlling (SPC) Deming philosophy Deming 14 points Deming Cycle (for continuous improvements) Seven deadly diseases of quality
Deming 1. * • • Statistical process controlling: it’s a process which aims at achieving good quality during manufacture through prevention rather than detection. It is concerned with controlling the process (machine) which make the product through inspecting the machine rather than the product itself. For example why the salesman can’t sell the same amount every month ? SPC will answer this question by discovering and analyzing these items : -
Deming Common causes : which inherent to the process as Machine fails 2. Special causes : Not inherent to the process and should be defined such as poor performance 3. Natural Variation: producing certain amount of defects 4. Significantly different variation: Discovering exactly where it is by management. Note. Deming said : *80% depends on management *20% depends on employee 1.
Deming 2. Deming Philosophy : The quality and the productivity increases when the process fluctuation Decreases
Deming ** Deming 14 points , I will mention some: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Create constancy of purpose to improve product and service. The new age of quality requires a commitment continuously to improve. Constantly improve , Use the PDCA cycle Don’t have silly slogans that mean nothing Supervision must change from chasing to coaching and support Remove Barriers that prevent employees having pride in their work , Barriers such as time pressure and focus on profit rather than quality
Deming's Seven Deadly Diseases *The amount of severe criticism of western management and organizational practices 1. Lack of constancy of purpose 2. Emphasis on short-term profits : we should focus on the whole financial period rather than focus at the end 3. Too much staff mobility : it occurs when managers cant define the actual problems and not learning from them
Deming's Seven Deadly Diseases 4. Over dependence on figures : particularly financial which can be messaged to look great in the short term while long term suffers Note : It’s a wrong way to focus on short term results , rather than coaching and helping employees on a long term
Who was Joseph Juran? _ Joseph Juran is an internationally acclaimed quality guru, similar to Edwards Deming, strongly influencing Japanese manufacturing practices. Joseph Juran’s belief that “quality does not happen by accident” gave rise to the quality trilogy.
Joseph Juran Ideas are : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Quality definition Breakthrough concept Internal customer Quality Trilogy Pareto analysis Cost of quality Quality council
Joseph Juran 1. Quality definition : ( Fitness of purpose) The statement is not that much easy , as it requires asking many questions like : • What is the real purpose ? • Are customer internal or external users ? • Who are the possible customers ?
Joseph Juran 2. Breakthrough : sequences of process improvements , which take two journeys • • journey from symptom to cause journey from cause to remedy 3. Internal customers : quality is associated with customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction • Satisfaction : occurs when the product has superior performance and features • Dissatisfaction : when we have defects and deficiencies
Joseph Juran Customer satisfaction has two dimensions: • Internal : Building the product and the service correctly • External : matching customer requirements and meet their expectations 4. Quality council : A group of experts who are responsible for supervising in the application of quality *Juran Big (Q) : quality doesn’t the concern of the production or the total quality within the organization , but it extends to link between organization departments, operations and services.
Joseph Juran 5. Juran quality cost : *Appraisal Costs: Costs of activities designed to ensure quality or uncover defects (inspection) * Prevention Costs : All TQ training, TQ planning to prevent defects from occurring *Failure Costs - costs incurred by defective parts/products or faulty services. *Internal Failure Costs : Costs incurred to fix problems that are detected before the product/service is delivered to the customer. *External Failure Costs : All costs incurred to fix problems that are detected after the product/service is delivered to the customer.
Joseph Juran * Juran three role models : He assumed that every process has an internal customer and supplier which linked to each other through a process to reach the optimum quality. 6. Juran Pareto analysis : A universal problem solving methodology in which we list the key problems into a table and ranking them from the highest to the lowest and trying to solve the deficiencies
Joseph Juran 7. Quality Trilogy : Quality planning : *determine the organization internal and external customers * determine customer needs , requirements and expectations * design the product to achieve customer satisfaction * prepare a design to achieve a good quality Quality controlling : *determine variation and make decisions * measure performance and results *compare the results with the stated objectives. Quality improvements : * define quality goals * train the workers * develop a problem solving statement
Who is Philip Crosby? * Known as The Fun Uncle of the Quality Revolution *Where Phil Crosby excellence was in finding a terminology for quality that mere mortals could understand. (Dr. Deming and Dr. Juran were the great brains of the quality revolution) *He popularized the idea of the "cost of poor quality", that is, figuring out how much it really costs to do things badly
Crosby Mr. Crosby defined quality as a conformity to certain specifications. Crosby four absolutes are : 1. The definition of quality is conformance to requirements, it is not appropriate to say good or bad quality as quality cant be measured but conformance can be 2. The system of the quality is prevention : make a prevention strategy and it should be supported by SPC in order to understand the process and discover the default before occurring •
Crosby 3. The performance is zero defects: make the requirement right from the first time , and make the quality accepted by a number of standard items. 4. The measurements of quality is the price of NONconformance : because cost quality is the prime motivation for management. _CROSBY quality costs : * Price of NON conformance : (all the costs involved in not getting the product or a service right. * Price of conformance : costs for doing things right
Crosby has 14 points like Deming , like : - Management commitment - Building awareness - Educating employees - Quality councils And others but the main difference between Deming and crosby is that : **Deming focus on quality management. **Crosby focus on action plan and implementation process.
Armand Vallin Feigenbaum
Armand Vallin Feigenbaum � (born 1922) is an American quality control expert and businessman. Feigenbaum concept's of Total Quality Control , known today as total quality management , combines management methods and economic theory with organizational principles.
Armand Vallin Feigenbaum � he does not get the great attention that the others (Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, etc. ) get. But, he is special. . Feigenbaum also believed that quality was a way of operating or a way of life, thus the term "Total Quality. " � and believes that quality has become the single most important force leading to organizational success and growth.
Armand Vallin Feigenbaum � Feigenbaum defined total Quality control as an effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction
Armand Vallin Feigenbaum Armand is also know for his concept of the "hidden" plant the idea that so much extra work is performed in correcting mistakes that there is effectively a hidden plant within any factory
Armand Vallin Feigenbaum � Accountability for quality : Because quality is everybody's job, it may become nobody's job—the idea that quality must be actively managed and have visibility at the highest levels of management
Feigenbaum believes that there are three elements to quality: * Quality Leadership the management in a company must always be striving for quality. They must put items in place that allow them to measure quality, control quality and improve quality. There must be constant feedback and oversight of the organization to assure that quality continues.
Feigenbaum believes that there are three elements to quality: * Modern Quality Technology the quality function cannot achieve quality without the help of others. Everyone must be trained and led to quality. * Organizational Commitment everyone in the organization must believe in quality.
David A. Garvin is the Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.
"If quality is to be managed, it must first be understood. "
So he studied one industry which was active in both the United States and Japan -- the room air conditioning industry -analyzing the products to determine which plants in which country were turning out the highest quality. Then he analyzed every step of the manufacturing process, to find the differences that made the difference.
His findings were often surprising. Some things that everyone thought guaranteed higher quality (such as exhaustive testing) did not, while some things rarely mentioned in the literature (such as the way the factory dealt with layoffs and seniority, and the length of production runs) made a big difference.
The eight dimensions of quality � David Garvin identified his “eight dimensions of quality” which he maintained covered the meaning of quality to managers, operators and customers
The eight dimensions of quality � � Performance: Main operating characteristics such as power, sound, speed etc. Features: The extras that supplement the main characteristics Reliability: How often it breaks down Conformance: How close it is to the design specification or service to the customers experience.
The eight dimensions of quality � � Durability: Length of life, toughness in use, service frequency etc. Serviceability: Ease, cost and friendliness of service. Aesthetics: Appearance and impression. Perceived quality: The feel, finish and manner in which the customer is dealt with.
Kaoru Ishikawa was a Japanese professor and influential quality management innovator best known in north America for the Ishikawa or cause and effect diagram (also known as fishbone diagram) that are used in the analysis of industrial process.
Quality Contributions User Friendly Quality Control Fishbone Cause and Effect Diagram Ishikawa diagram � Implementation of Quality Circles � Emphasized the 'Internal Customer ' � Shared Vision � �
Quality Contributions cont. he was known for the use of the “seven basic tools of quality”: • Pareto analysis: which are the big problems? • Cause and effect diagrams: what causes the problems? • Stratification: how is the data made up? • Check sheets: how often it occurs or is done? • Histograms: what do overall variations look like? • Scatter charts: what are the relationships between factors? • Process control charts: which variations to control and how?
Ishikawa diagram The Ishikawa diagram (or fishbone diagram or also causeand-effect diagram) are diagrams, that shows the causes of a certain event. A common use of the Ishikawa diagram is in product design. Also it reveals key relationships among various variables,
Categories of causes � The 6 M's � � The 8 P's � � Machine, Method, Materials, Maintenance, Man and Mother Nature )Environment) (recommended for the manufacturing industry. Price, Promotion, People, Processes, Place/Plant, Policies, Procedures, and Product )or Service ( )recommended for the administration and service industries). The 4 S's � Surroundings, Suppliers, Systems, Skills )recommended for the service industry)
Shigeo Shingo, born in Saga City, Japan, was a Japanese industrial engineer who distinguished himself as one of the world’s leading experts on manufacturing practices and The Toyota Production System. Shingo is known far more in the West than in Japan.
Shigeo Shingo is strongly associated with Just-in. Time manufacturing, and was the inventor of : 1) The single minute exchange of die (SMED) system, in which set up times are reduced from hours to minutes, and 2) The Poka-Yoke (mistake proofing) system. In Poka Yoke, defects are examined, the production system stopped and immediate feedback given so that the root causes of the problem may be identified and prevented from occurring again.
Shigeo Shingo He distinguished between “errors”, which are inevitable, and “defects”, which result when an error reaches a customer, and the aim of Poka. Yoke is to stop errors becoming defects. Defects arise because errors are made and there is a cause and effect relationship between the two.
Poke-yoke Zero quality control is the ideal production system and this requires both Poka-Yoke and source inspections.
Gen'ichi Taguchi is an engineer and statistician. Taguchi developed a methodology for applying statistics to improve the quality of manufactured goods. Taguchi methods have been controversial among some conventional Western statisticians, but others have accepted many of the concepts introduced by him as valid extensions to the body of knowledge.
Taguchi methodology “Taguchi methodology” is fundamentally a prototyping method that enables the designer to identify the optimal settings to produce a robust product that can survive manufacturing time after time, piece after piece, and provide what the customer wants. Today, companies see a close link between Taguchi methods, which can be viewed along a continuum, and quality function deployment (QFD).
Taguchi contributions: Taguchi has made a very influential contribution to industrial statistics. The key elements of his quality philosophy are: � Taguchi loss function: used to measure financial loss to society resulting from poor quality; � The philosophy of off-line quality control: designing products and processes so that they are insensitive to parameters outside the design engineer's control; and � Innovations in the statistical design of experiments: notably the use of an outer array for factors that are uncontrollable in real life, but are systematically varied in the experiment
Off-line quality control Taguchi realized that the best opportunity to eliminate variation is during the design of a product and its manufacturing process and it consists of 3 stages: � � � System design; Parameter design; and Tolerance design
� � System design This is design at the conceptual level, involving creativity and innovation. � � Parameter design Once the concept is established, the nominal values of the various dimensions and design parameters need to be set. Taguchi's radical insight was that the exact choice of values required is under-specified by the performance requirements of the system. This allows the parameters to be chosen so as to minimize the effects on performance arising from variation in manufacture, environment and cumulative damage. This is sometimes called robustification.
� � Tolerance design With a successfully completed parameter design, and an understanding of the effect that the various parameters have on performance, resources can be focused on reducing and controlling variation in the critical few dimensions
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