# Serial vs Parallel Connections Serial Connections Serial connections

- Slides: 14

Serial vs. Parallel Connections

Serial Connections • Serial connections are positive-to-negative in a chain

Serial Connections – PV’s • Current is the same through each device • Voltages add – Higher voltage and lower current reduce losses in wiring – Can exceed voltage capacity of charge controller • Reduces number of cables to combiner

Serial Connections – PV’s 5 amps 48 volts An MPPT controller can take the 5 amps * 48 volts = 240 watts and charge a 24 volt battery with 10 amps (neglecting losses)

Parallel Connections • Parallel connections are positive-to-positive and negative-to-negative 12 v PV PV 5 A 5 A + 10 A breaker -

Parallel Connections – PV’s • Current adds • Voltage is the same across each panel • Increases number of cables to combiner if multiple panel arrays are used • An MPPT controller uses the actual array voltage • A PWM controller sets PVs at battery voltage

Parallel Connections 12 v PV PV 5 A 5 A + 10 A breaker - + - 12 volts 10 A breaker 10 amps

Serial/Parallel Connections – Batteries • Batteries must be identical Volts? Serial or Parallel ? + 12 v 220 amp-hour Amp-hours?

Serial/Parallel Connections – Batteries • Batteries must be identical 12 Volts Parallel + 12 v 220 amp-hour 440 Amp-hours 24 Volts Serial + 12 v 220 amp-hour 220 Amp-hours

Serial Connections – Loads • Current is the same through all loads – This is the current the source must provide • Voltage drops between loads add • Voltage available for the next load in series is reduced by the previous load • Failure of any load results in failure of all

Serial Connections – Loads Current is the same through each load. If the total of all voltage requirements of all loads is greater than the voltage supplied some will have low voltage and may be damaged.

Parallel Connections – Loads • • Total current usage adds Same voltage is available at each load Failure of one load may not affect the others Loads with mixed current requirements are not affected (as long as the total current needed does not exceed system capacity).

Parallel Connections – Loads • This configuration depicts multiple loads wired in parallel. • Each load is rated for the battery voltage. • The total current from the battery is the sum of the current through each load, • even though each load pulls a different current

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