SCHIZOPHRENIA By: Hamas Shaibi
What is Schizophrenia � Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and generally disabling brain and behavior disorder. It is most accurately described as a psychosis a type of illness that causes severe mental disturbances that disrupt normal thoughts, speech, and behavior.
One Type of Schizophrenia � � Disorganized-type schizophrenia is characterized by speech and behavior that are disorganized or difficult to understand, and flattening or inappropriate emotions. People with disorganized-type schizophrenia may laugh inappropriately for no apparent reason, make illogical statements, or seem preoccupied with their own thoughts or perceptions. Their disorganized behavior may disrupt normal activities, such as showering, dressing, and preparing meals.
Another Type � Paranoid-type schizophrenia is characterized by delusions and auditory hallucinations (hearing voices that don't exist) but relatively normal intellectual functioning and expression of emotions. The delusions can often be about being persecuted by a person or an organization, or feeling harassed or treated unfairly. People with paranoid-type schizophrenia can exhibit anger, aloofness, anxiety, and can be argumentative.
Schizophrenia � � � It is estimated that more than 2. 1 million Americans now have schizophrenia. Schizophrenia can be found in approximately 1% of the world’s population, regardless of racial, ethnic or even economic background. Three-quarters of persons with schizophrenia develop the illness between 16 and 25 years of age. The disorder tends to “run” in families, but only among blood relatives. To be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, one must have associated symptoms for at least six months. Studies have indicated that 25% of those having schizophrenia recover completely, 50% are improved over a 10 -year period, and 25% do not improve over time.
Symptoms POSITIVE � � Delusions, thought disorders, and hallucinations. People with schizophrenia may hear voices other people don't hear, or believe other people are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them. NEGATIVE � � "Flat affect" (a person's face does not move or he or she talks in a dull or monotonous voice) Lack of pleasure in everyday life Lack of ability to begin and sustain planned activities Speaking little, even when forced to interact.
Cognitive Difficulty focusing or paying attention Difficulty understanding information or following instructions Poor memory and concentration
What Causes Schizophrenia?
The causes of Schizophrenia � � � Genetics- having blood relatives diagnosed with schizophrenia increases the chance: Relative risk for schizophrenia is around: 1% for normal population 5. 6% for parents 10. 1% for siblings 12. 8% for children
Brain Structure � � Brain Chemistry. Schizophrenia is associated with an unusual imbalance of neurotransmitters (chemicals that act as messengers between nerve cells). In particular, brain chemicals such as dopamine and glutamine may be involved. Brain Structure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brains of patients with schizophrenia have revealed structural abnormalities. Such problems may cause nerve damage and disconnections in the pathways that carry brain chemicals.
Environmental Factors � � Viral infections. Factors that increase exposure to viruses (living in urban environments, large families, winter and spring births) have been associated with higher risk for schizophrenia. Prenatal and Perinatal Problems. Maternal exposure to viruses, maternal malnutrition, and birth complications (such as a baby experiencing lack of oxygen during delivery) may be linked to schizophrenia. Father’s age. According to some studies, the older a father is when a child is born, the greater the risk is for schizophrenia in his offspring, perhaps because of a greater chance of genetic mutations in the sperm that can be passed on. Childhood trauma. Although parental influence is no longer believed to directly lead to the development of schizophrenia, certain types of childhood trauma (including sexual and physical abuse) may play a role.
What is the treatment for schizophrenia?
TREAMENTS � � � Motivational interviewing to encourage the patient's commitment to change Use of antipsychotic medications with monitoring Community-based rehabilitation and social skills training Family psychotherapy Cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce delusions and hallucinations
Treatments in Depth � � Hospitalization- is necessary during the acute phase of the illness because risk of serious suicidal thoughts or his unable to care for himself. to treat delusions, hallucinations, or problems with drugs and alcohol. Medication- Antipsychotic drugs are currently the best treatment available, but they do not "cure" schizophrenia or ensure that there will be no further psychotic episodes. Psychosocial- help these patients deal with the everyday challenges of the illness, such as difficulty with communication, self-care, work, and forming and keeping relationships Cognitive behavioral therapy- helps patients with symptoms that do not go away even when they take medication. The therapist teaches people with schizophrenia how to test the reality of their thoughts and perceptions, how to "not listen" to their voices, and how to manage their symptoms overall.
Work Cited � � � "About Schizophrenia. " SARDAA. N. p. , n. d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. <http: //www. sardaa. org/resources/about-schizophrenia/>. "NAMI - The National Alliance on Mental Illness. " NAMI. N. p. , n. d. Web. 01 Apr. 2014. <http: //www. nami. org/Content/Navigation. Menu/Mental_Illnesses/Schizophrenia 9/Causes. htm>. "Schizophrenia. " Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (Formerly NARSAD). N. p. , n. d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. <http: //bbrfoundation. org/schizophrenia>. "Schizophrenia (Symptoms). " Psychology Today: Health, Help, Happiness + Find a Therapist. N. p. , n. d. Web. 01 Apr. 2014. <http: //www. psychologytoday. com/conditions/schizophrenia? tab=Symptoms>. "Schizophrenia. " University of Maryland Medical Center. N. p. , n. d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. <http: //umm. edu/health/medical/reports/articles/schizophrenia>. "Types of Schizophrenia: Paranoid, Residual, and More. " Web. MD, n. d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. <http: //www. webmd. com/schizophrenia/guide/schizophrenia -types>