Define Schizophrenia *a group of severe brain disorders in which people interpret reality abnormally *may result in hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking and behavior *a chronic condition, requiring lifelong treatment *the most common psychotic disorder which affects 1 -2% of the population or 2. 5 million Americans
Types of Schizophrenia *Paranoid Schizophrenia *Disorganized Schizophrenia *Catatonic Schizophrenia *Undifferentiated Schizophrenia(largest group) *Residual Schizophrenia
Pathophysiology continued *Caused by imbalances in neurotransmitters in specific brain areas which suggest the possibilities of a reaction dopaminergic pathways in the brain nuclei (an area that controls motor activity) *Results from combination of genetic and environmental factors *Compared to a healthy brain, a schizophrenic brain has large ventricles and a smaller amount of tissue in the left temporal lobe.
Risk Factors *Having a family history of Schizophrenia *Exposure to viruses, toxins or malnutrition while in womb especially in the first or second trimester *Stressful Circumstances *Older parental age *Taking psychoactive drugs during adolescence and young adulthood
Risk Factors Continued
Three types of symptoms *Positive -hallucinations -delusions -disorganized thought or speech pattern *Negative -losing interest in everyday activities -feeling out of touch with other people, family or friends -lack of feeling or emotions -having little emotions or inappropriate feelings in certain situations -having less ability to experience pleasure -decreased ability to plan and carryout activates *Cognitive -problems with making sense of information -difficulty paying attention -memory problems
Diagnostic Test *Laboratory tests- rule out other conditions with similar symptoms and screening for drugs and alcohol *Psychological evaluation- patient must exhibit at least two symptoms of the disorder and have had them for six months **Men are usually diagnosed in late teens to early 20’s **Women are usually diagnosed in their mid 20’s to early 30’s **Uncommon to diagnose in children and rare to diagnose over 45 years of age
Treatment with Antipsychotic Medications Atypical *Aripiprazole (Abilify) *Clozapine (Fazaclo ODT) *Paliperidone (Invaga) *Quetiapine (Seroquel) *Risperidone (Risperdal) *Zipraxindone (Geodon) Typical *Chlorpromazine *Fluphenazine *Haloperidol (Haldol) *Perphenazine *Atypical preferred because of lower risk of debilitating side effects. *Typical has frequent and potentially significant neurological side effects including tardive dyskinesia which may or may not be reversed.
Treatment Continued Although the medications help treat the disorder, the side effects can cause patient to be noncompliant even though most of the side effects will subside *Drowsiness/Dizziness *Tremors *Restlessness *Skin rashes *Sensitivity to the sun *Blurred vision *Rapid heart rate
Evidence-Based Treatment Modalities Psychosocial Treatment *Social skills training *Family therapy *Vocational rehabilitation and supported employment *Individual therapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy *a type of psychotherapy that focuses on behavior and thinking
You. Tube video http: //youtube/v 1 XO 6 o-9 mq. Q (“Bob” HBO documentary from about 1989) I know this video is old, however Schizophrenia really hasn’t changed. I found it very interesting that he was classic in terms of his age of onset and the fact that stress appears to have been the trigger for him. This video is a good example of what Schizophrenia looks like. His thoughts and words appear to be all jumbled up, anxiety level is high and he is clearly having delusional thoughts. I also thought it covered well what all the families go through when the diagnosis is received. I was sad to see that there wasn’t a drug regime that worked for him. Also just as I noticed in the literature I read, he suffered irreversible side effect which ended him in a group home. I did wonder however if there might be drugs out now that wasn’t out then that might have helped.
References Higgins, Henry. (2011, June, 21) Schizophrenia Documentary (HBO) “Bob”. Retrieved from http: //youtube/v 1 XO 6 o-9 mq. Q Schizophrenia. (2012, January 27). Retrieved from http: //www. mayoclinic. com/health/schizophrenia/ds 00196 Schizophrenia. (2013) Retrieved from http: //www. nimh. nih. gov/health/publications/schizophrenia/w Schizophrenia. (2013) Retrieved from www. webmd. com/schizophrenia/default. htm Schizophrenia. (2013, July 13) Retrieved from https: //en. wikipededia. org/wiki/schizophrenia