- Slides: 37
Introduction ü Most cooks use recipes. A recipe is a list of ingredients that gives you directions for preparing a specific food. If you know how to follow recipes, then you will be successful in the kitchen. Who knows! You may become a famous chef! 2
Objectives ü Successful cooks know: • How to read a recipe • Write proper abbreviations • Describe Measuring Techniques • Identify Equivalents • Change a Recipe – by doubling it or cutting it in half 3
I. What’s in a recipe? ü A formula! ü Read the recipe before you cook. The parts of the recipe tell you: • Name • Ingredients • Equipment • Directions • Yield (number of servings) • Sometimes - Nutritional Analysis 4
Parts of a Recipe Name What the recipe is called. ü A recipe usually includes: Quesadillas Yield Number of servings the recipe makes. Equipment (Serves 4 - 2 person) 8 flour tortillas Ingredients 1 cup grated cheese 1. Heat a frying pan over medium heat. 2. Place a tortilla in the pan. 3. Sprinkle 1/4 cup cheese on the tortilla. 4. Cover the cheese with another tortilla. Directions Steps you follow to make the recipe. 5 5. Cook about 1 minute, until brown and crisp. Then turn the quesadilla over. Cook until the cheese melts. 6. Place on a serving plate. Cut into pie shaped wedges. 7. Repeat process with remaining ingredients. Food products you need to make the recipe.
II. What’s an Abbreviation? ü Understanding the language of recipes takes the guesswork out of cooking. ü Abbreviation -a shortened form of a word or phrase ü Abbreviations in measuring units: • Save space on the cookbook page. • Make recipes easier to read. 6
Name the Abbreviations ü The U. S. uses the English system: 7 • Teaspoon = • Tablespoon = • Cup = • Pint = • Quart qt. • Gallon = • Ounce/fluid ounce = • Pound =
Name the Abbreviations ü Most other countries use the Metric system: 8 • Milliliter ml • Liter L • Grams g • Kilogram kg
Name the Abbreviations ü More abbreviations: • • • 9 Few grains, dash, pinch Dozen Pound Inch Second Minute Hour Degree Fahrenheit/Celsius =f. g. = =sec. =min. = = =F. / C
III. Name That Utensil/Tool ü Serving spoons & cups vary in size. Only use these standard measuring utensils… Can you name them? 10
The Right Measuring Utensil ü What are two ingredients that you’d measure with when using: • measuring spoons? • dry/solid measuring cups? • a liquid measuring cup? ü Which measuring utensil would you use to measure each of these ingredients? • • 11 1 1/3 cups flour 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 cup milk 2 tablespoons cooking oil
Measuring Liquid Ingredients ü Liquid ingredients can include: - ü To measure 1/4 cup or more of a liquid ingredient, use a clear, liquid measuring cup. - ü For smaller amounts use measuring spoons. • Fill the spoon until a slight dome is visible. 12
Measuring Dry Ingredients ü A standard set of dry/solid measuring cups is made of four cup sizes. ü What amount does each cup measure? 13
Measuring Dry Ingredients ü Dry ingredients can include: • Flour, sugar, brown sugar, salt, and baking powder. ü To measure 1/4 cup or more of a dry ingredient use a measuring cup. • Measuring cups generally come in 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 cup sizes. ü To measure less than a 1/4 cup use a measuring spoon. 14 • Measuring spoons generally come in 1/4, 1/2, & 1 teaspoon & 1 tablespoon sizes. • To measure 1/8 tsp. measure 1/4 tsp. & then remove half.
Measuring Dry Ingredients ü Measuring flour: • Do not pack the flour into the measuring cup or spoon because you will end up with more flour. Instead, scoop flour into the cup and level with a straight edge. ü Measuring brown sugar: • Pack the brown sugar tightly into the measuring cup or spoon. Once it is packed down, level it with a straight edge. ü Measuring granulated sugar: • Fill the cup with sugar. Level with a straight edge so that sugar is even with top of measuring cup or spoon. 15
Pass the Cup ü Dry/solid measure check-up: • Which of these amounts is greater? Write the amount. 16 1/2 cup or 3/4 cup 1/4 cup or 1/3 cup 1/4 cup or 2 Tbsp. 1/2 cup or 1/4 cup or 3 tsp. 1 1/3 cup or 1 1/4 cup
Measuring Solid Ingredients ü Sticks of butter and margarine have measurements marked on the wrapper. • One stick = 1/2 cup or 8 tablespoons or ¼ lb. ü Measure solid fats, such as shortening or peanut butter, in a dry measuring cup. • Pack it into the cup and level it with a spatula. Then use a plastic scraper to remove it from the cup. 17 You can also use a method called the water displacement method
Measuring Techniques Checklist Can you do these things? q q q q 18 3/4 cup sugar 1 cup flour 1 Tbsp. water 1 tsp. salt 1 Tbsp. flour 1 1/3 cups water 1/4 cup brown sugar Ingredients & tools properly cleaned and stored. Hands on activity ü Demonstrate proper measuring techniques by completing the checklist. Name: __________ Checked by: _______
Measuring Just With Spoons ü This chart shows some amounts that you’ll often see in recipes. And it shows how to measure those amounts with measuring spoons. 19 1 Tbsp. 1 tsp. + 1 tsp. 3/4 tsp. 1/4 tsp. + 1/4 tsp. or 1/2 tsp. + 1/4 tsp. 1/8 tsp. half of 1/4 tsp. 1/8 cup 1 Tbsp. + 1 Tbsp.
IV. Basic Equivalents ü Equivalents are amounts that are equal to each other. ü Dry/Liquid equivalents: • • 20 Pinch or Dash 1 Tablespoon 1/4 cup 1/3 cup 1/2 cup = = = less than 1/8 teaspoon 3/4 cup 1 cup = = 12 Tablespoons 4 Tablespoons 5 Tablespoons & 1 teaspoon
Basic Equivalents ü To help you remember: 1 Tablespoon = 3 t e a spoons There are 3 letters in the word tea and 3 teaspoons in a tablespoon. 1/4 c. = 4 Tbsp. 21
Basic Equivalents 1 = ___ T = ___T + ___ t = ___ T =___ T 22
Basic Equivalents ü To help you remember: A formula 2 c. = 1 pt. 2 pt. = 1 qt. 4 qt. = 1 gal. 23
Basic Equivalents ü 1 fluid ounce = 2 Tablespoons ü 8 ounces = 1 cup ü 16 ounces = 1 pound ü 1 pint = 2 cups ü 1 quart = 2 pints = 4 cups ü 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups 24
The following pages are for review ü Review on your own for test questions 25
Equivalents at the Store ü At the store, many foods are sold by the pint or by the quart. Many recipes will ask you to measure those foods by the cup. ü Here is a helpful guide: 26 • 1 cup = • 2 cups = • 4 quarts = 1/2 pints 1 gallon
Equivalents at the Store ü Answer the following questions with one of these amounts: 1/2 pint 1 quart What size container will you buy if. . . 1. A recipe for salad calls for 2 cups of cottage cheese. ? 2. A recipe for a fruit dessert calls for 1 cup of whipping cream? 3. You need 4 cups of milk for a pudding? 4. You need 2 cups of sour cream to make a dip? 5. A recipe for fruit salad says to mix 8 ounces of yogurt with fruit? 27
Equivalents at the Store ü Now that you know how many cups make up 1/2 pint, 1 pint, and 1 quart, try to figure out how many ounces are in these amounts: 28 • 1 cup = ___ oz. • 1/2 pint = ___ oz. • 1 quart = ___ oz. • 1 gallon = ___ oz.
Basic Equivalents Pop Quiz 1. 1. 1 pint = ____ cups 2. 2. 1 gallon = ____ quarts 3. 3. 1 quart = ____ cups 4. 4. 1 cup = ____ tablespoons 5. 5. 1 tablespoon 29 = ____ teaspoons
V. How to Change a Recipe ü You can double a recipe-that is when you want to make twice as much. • Example yield is 2 dozen but you want to make 4 dozen – You take each ingredient and multiple it by 2 (x 2) ü You can cut a recipe in half-that is when you want to reduce the amount being made • Example the yield is 6 dozen but you only need to make 3 dozen – You take each ingredient and divide by 2 (/2) 30
How Do You Measure Up? ü This recipe for Chocolate Chip Cookies yields 3 dozen. You need to make 6 dozen. Write down the measurements you would use to double this recipe. Use correct abbreviations. Chocolate Chip Cookies Yields 3 dozen. 2 1/4 cup flour 3/4 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1/4 teaspoon salt 2 eggs 1 cup margarine 3/4 cup sugar 31 2 cup chocolate chips
How Do You Measure Down? ü Your Grandma’s recipe for Chocolate Cake makes a large cake so you want to make only half of a cake. Write down the new measurements you would need to make half this recipe. Use correct abbreviations. Chocolate Cake 2 cups sugar 1/2 cup butter 2 eggs 1 cup buttermilk 2 1/2 cups cake flour 32 2 teaspoons baking soda 2 chocolate squares 1/2 teaspoon salt 2/3 cup warm water 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
You’re the Expert ü Jenny is throwing a surprise birthday party for her best friend Katie. She has decided to make Katie’s favorite dish, meat loaf. There will be a total of 40 people at the party. Answer the following questions: • The recipe says it serves 8 people. By what number should Jenny multiply each ingredient to make enough meat loaf for everyone? • The recipe calls for 1 1/2 lbs. of ground beef. How much ground beef will Jenny need to make enough meat loaf for everyone? • Jenny will be serving milk with the meal. She plans on using 8 oz. glasses. How many gallons of milk does she need to make sure everyone gets one glass of milk? 33
Kitchen Math Quiz Write down the answers to the following questions. 1 tablespoon is equivalent to __ teaspoons and 1 fluid ounce is equivalent to __ tablespoons. a. b. c. d. 2. 3, 4 4, 1 3, 2 2, 3 How would you measure the following amounts? a. b. c. d. 34 a. b. c. d. 2/3 cup 1/8 cup 1 2/3 cup 2 3/4 cups
Kitchen Math Quiz 3. The number of servings a recipe makes is called its ____. a. b. c. d. 4. serving size yield equivalent supply Match the term on the left with the appropriate abbreviation on the right. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 35 a. b. c. d. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. pounds cups tablespoons teaspoons ounces a. b. c. d. e. c. Tbsp. lb. tsp. oz.
Kitchen Math Quiz 5. True of False? a. a. Liquids should always be measured at eye level. b. b. When measuring flour you should scoop it into a dry measuring cup, pack it, and level it with a straight edge. c. c. One stick of butter is equal to 1 cup. 6. Look at each of the following measurements and determine which amount is larger: a. b. c. d. 36 a. b. c. d. 1/3 cup or 1/4 cup 1 pound or 18 ounces 1 tablespoon or 4 teaspoons 1 pint or 3 cups
Applying What You Know Choose one of the following assignments. ü Create a worksheet of math word problems based on kitchen measurements. Be sure to create an answer sheet. Trade worksheets with at least 10 classmates and grade each other’s work. ü Create new recipe card that doubles and cuts in half a favorite recipe. Share it with the class explaining what you did. It should be large enough for all to see. For extra credit make the recipe and evaluate the results. ü Create an easy-to-read poster of common 37 abbreviations and basic equivalents. Be sure to include visuals and display accurate information. Share with class.