Civil Rights Civil Rights Activism new legislation and

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Civil Rights

Civil Rights

Civil Rights Activism, new legislation, and the Supreme Court advance equal rights for African

Civil Rights Activism, new legislation, and the Supreme Court advance equal rights for African Americans. But disagreements among civil rights groups lead to a violent period for the civil rights movement. NEXT

Civil Rights SECTION 1 Taking on Segregation SECTION 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade

Civil Rights SECTION 1 Taking on Segregation SECTION 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade SECTION 3 Challenges and Changes in the Movement NEXT

Section 1 Taking on Segregation Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advance

Section 1 Taking on Segregation Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advance equal rights for African Americans in the 1950 s and 1960 s. NEXT

Learning Objectives: Section 1 - Taking on Segregation 1. Explain how legalized segregation deprived

Learning Objectives: Section 1 - Taking on Segregation 1. Explain how legalized segregation deprived African Americans of their rights as citizens. 2. Summarize civil rights legal activity and the response to the Plessy and Brown cases. 3. Trace Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ’s, civil rights activities, beginning with the Montgomery Bus Boycott. 4. Describe the expansion of the civil rights movement.

SECTION 1 Taking on Segregation The Segregation System Plessy v. Ferguson • Civil Rights

SECTION 1 Taking on Segregation The Segregation System Plessy v. Ferguson • Civil Rights Act of 1875 act outlawed segregation • In 1883, all-white Supreme Court declares Act unconstitutional • 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling: separate but equal constitutional • Many states pass Jim Crow laws separating the races • Facilities for blacks always inferior to those for whites Continued. . . NEXT

Guided Reading: What did the Civil Rights Act of 1875 do? Outlawed segregation in

Guided Reading: What did the Civil Rights Act of 1875 do? Outlawed segregation in public facilities

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • A – What were the effects of the Supreme Court

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • A – What were the effects of the Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson? – The Supreme Court ruled that segregation was not unconstitutional, – Southern states, passed segregationist Jim Crow laws.

Guided Reading: How did the Court rule in Plessy? Upheld Louisiana's "separate but equal"

Guided Reading: How did the Court rule in Plessy? Upheld Louisiana's "separate but equal" law as constitutional

SECTION 1 continued The Segregation System Segregation Continues into the 20 th Century •

SECTION 1 continued The Segregation System Segregation Continues into the 20 th Century • After Civil War, African Americans go north to escape racism • North: housing in all-black areas, whites resent job competition NEXT

SECTION 1 continued The Segregation System A Developing Civil Rights Movement • WW II

SECTION 1 continued The Segregation System A Developing Civil Rights Movement • WW II creates job opportunities for African Americans • Need for fighting men makes armed forces end discriminatory policies • FDR ends government, war industries discrimination • Returning black veterans fight for civil rights at home NEXT

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • B – How did events during World War II lay

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • B – How did events during World War II lay the groundwork for African Americans to fight for civil rights in the 1950 s? – Blacks had experienced better job opportunities; – Many veterans who had fought racist Germans wanted to resist racist Americans; – Civil rights groups had staged some successful protest.

Guided Reading: In what three ways did World War II help set the stage

Guided Reading: In what three ways did World War II help set the stage for the modern civil rights movement? a. the war opened up job opportunities for African Americans b. African-American soldiers returned home determined to fight for their own freedom c. during the war, organizations had campaigned for civil rights.

SECTION 1 Challenging Segregation in Court The NAACP Legal Strategy • Professor Charles Hamilton

SECTION 1 Challenging Segregation in Court The NAACP Legal Strategy • Professor Charles Hamilton Houston leads NAACP legal campaign • Focuses on most glaring inequalities of segregated public education • Places team of law students under Thurgood Marshall - win 29 out of 32 cases argued before Supreme Court NEXT

SECTION 1 Challenging Segregation in Court Brown v. Board of Education • Marshall’s greatest

SECTION 1 Challenging Segregation in Court Brown v. Board of Education • Marshall’s greatest victory is Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka • In 1954 case, Court unanimously strikes down school segregation NEXT

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • C – How did the Brown decision affect schools outside

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • C – How did the Brown decision affect schools outside of Topeka? – Brown said that segregation has no place in public education, so all public school must desegregate.

Guided Reading: Who argued Brown’s case? What did the Brown ruling declare? Thurgood Marshall;

Guided Reading: Who argued Brown’s case? What did the Brown ruling declare? Thurgood Marshall; NAACP That segregation is unconstitutional

SECTION 1 Reaction to the Brown Decision Resistance to School Desegregation • Within 1

SECTION 1 Reaction to the Brown Decision Resistance to School Desegregation • Within 1 year, over 500 school districts desegregate • Some districts, state officials, pro-white groups actively resist • Court hands Brown II, orders desegregation at “all deliberate speed” • Eisenhower refuses to enforce compliance; considers it impossible Continued. . . NEXT

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • D – Why weren’t schools in all regions desegregated immediately

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • D – Why weren’t schools in all regions desegregated immediately after the Brown II decision? – Some southern whites and state officials resisted segregation , and neither the president nor congress forced them to act quickly.

SECTION 1 continued Reaction to the Brown Decision Crisis in Little Rock high school

SECTION 1 continued Reaction to the Brown Decision Crisis in Little Rock high school the Little Rock 9 NEXT

SECTION 1 continued Reaction to the Brown Decision Crisis in Little Rock • Since

SECTION 1 continued Reaction to the Brown Decision Crisis in Little Rock • Since 1948, Arkansas integrating state university, private groups • Gov. Orval Faubus has National Guard turn away black students • Elizabeth Eckford faces abusive crowd when she tries to enter school • Eisenhower has Nat. Guard, paratroopers supervise school attendance • African-American students harassed by whites at school all year • 1957 Civil Rights Act—federal government power over schools, voting NEXT

 • Woodrow Wilson Mann, the mayor of Little Rock, asked President Eisenhower to

• Woodrow Wilson Mann, the mayor of Little Rock, asked President Eisenhower to send federal troops to enforce integration and protect the nine students. • On September 24, the President ordered the 101 st Airborne Division of the United States Army—without its black soldiers, who rejoined the division a month later—to Little Rock and federalized the entire 10, 000 -member Arkansas National Guard, taking it out of the hands of Faubus.

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • E – What effect do you think television coverage of

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • E – What effect do you think television coverage of the Little Rock incident had on the nation? – Television allowed people to see the white separatists’ cruel treatment of African American students.

Guided Reading: How did President Eisenhower respond to the Little Rock crisis? Placed the

Guided Reading: How did President Eisenhower respond to the Little Rock crisis? Placed the Arkansas National Guard under federal control; ordered in paratroopers

SECTION 1 The Montgomery Bus Boycotting Segregation • 1955 NAACP officer Rosa Parks arrested

SECTION 1 The Montgomery Bus Boycotting Segregation • 1955 NAACP officer Rosa Parks arrested for not giving up seat on bus • Montgomery Improvement Association formed, organizes bus boycott • Elect 26 -year-old Baptist pastor Martin Luther King, Jr. leader NEXT

SECTION 1 The Montgomery Bus Boycott Walking for Justice • African Americans file lawsuit,

SECTION 1 The Montgomery Bus Boycott Walking for Justice • African Americans file lawsuit, boycott buses, use carpools, walk • Get support from black community, outside groups, sympathetic whites • 1956, Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation NEXT

Guided Reading: What organization What did it do? was formed to support Rosa Parks?

Guided Reading: What organization What did it do? was formed to support Rosa Parks? The Montgomery Improvement Association Organized a boycott of Montgomery buses

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • F – Why was Rosa Park’s action on December 1,

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • F – Why was Rosa Park’s action on December 1, 1955 significant? – Parks’ refusal to yield her seat to a white man led to a boycott; – It also brought Martin Luther King Jr. to prominence.

SECTION 1 Martin Luther King and the SCLC Changing the World with Soul Force

SECTION 1 Martin Luther King and the SCLC Changing the World with Soul Force • King calls his brand of nonviolent resistance “soul force” - civil disobedience, massive demonstrations • King remains nonviolent in face of violence after Brown decision NEXT

SECTION 1 Martin Luther King and the SCLC From the Grassroots Up • King,

SECTION 1 Martin Luther King and the SCLC From the Grassroots Up • King, others founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) • By 1960, African-American students think pace of change too slow • Join Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) NEXT

Guided Reading: Who was the president of SCLC? What was SCLC’s purpose? Martin Luther

Guided Reading: Who was the president of SCLC? What was SCLC’s purpose? Martin Luther King, Jr To "carry on nonviolent crusades" against racism

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • G – W hat were the central points of Dr.

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • G – W hat were the central points of Dr. King’s philosophy? – “Soul force” or nonviolent resistance, which included acts of civil disobedience, demonstrations and adherence to nonviolence.

Guided Reading: What did SNCC accomplish, and how? Desegregated lunch counters; sit-ins

Guided Reading: What did SNCC accomplish, and how? Desegregated lunch counters; sit-ins

SECTION 1 The Movement Spreads Demonstrating for Freedom • SNCC adopts nonviolence, but calls

SECTION 1 The Movement Spreads Demonstrating for Freedom • SNCC adopts nonviolence, but calls for more confrontational strategy • Influenced by Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to use sit-ins: - refuse to leave segregated lunch counter until served • First sit-in at Greensboro, NC Woolworth’s shown nationwide on TV • In spite of abuse, arrests, movement grows, spreads to North • Late 1960, lunch counters desegregated in 48 cities in 11 states NEXT

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • H – What was the role of the SCLC? –

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • H – What was the role of the SCLC? – It organized protest and demonstrations to promote civil rights.

Guided Reading: What did the Civil Rights Act of 1875 do? Outlawed segregation in

Guided Reading: What did the Civil Rights Act of 1875 do? Outlawed segregation in public facilities How did the Court rule in Plessy? Upheld Louisiana's "separate but equal" law as constih 1 tional In what three ways did World War II help set the stage for the modern civil rights movement? a. the war opened up job opportunities for African Americans b. African-American soldiers returned home determined to fight for their own freedom c. during the war, organizations had campaigned for civil rights. Who argued Brown’s case? What did the Brown ruling declare? Thurgood Marshall; NAACP That segregation is unconstitutional What organization was formed to support What did it do? Organized a boycott of Montgomery buses Rosa Parks? The Montgon 1 ery Improvement Association How did President Eisenhower respond to the Little Rock crisis? Placed the Arkansas National Guard under federal control; ordered in paratroopers Who was the president of SCLC? What was SCLC’s purpose? Martin Luther King, Jr To "carry on nonviolent crusades" against racism What did SNCC accomplish, and how? Desegregated lunch counters; sit-ins