Chapter 20 Civil Liberties Protecting Individual Rights Section

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Chapter 20: Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights Section 1

Chapter 20: Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights Section 1

Objectives 1. Explain the meaning of due process of law as set out in

Objectives 1. Explain the meaning of due process of law as set out in the 5 th and 14 th amendments. 2. Define police power and understand its relationship to civil rights. 3. Describe the right of privacy and its origins in constitutional law. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 2

Key Terms • due process: the guarantee that the government will act fairly and

Key Terms • due process: the guarantee that the government will act fairly and according to the law • procedural due process: how the government acts in terms of its methods and procedures • substantive due process: why the government acts in terms of its policies and the reasons for them Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3

Key Terms, cont. • police power: the authority of each state to protect and

Key Terms, cont. • police power: the authority of each state to protect and promote the public health, safety, morals, and general welfare • search warrant: a court order authorizing a search Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4

Introduction • Why is the concept of due process important to a free society?

Introduction • Why is the concept of due process important to a free society? – Due process forces the government to act in a just and fair way toward all citizens, enforcing all laws in an equal fashion. – Due process also requires the nation’s laws to be fair, without unjust prejudice toward any group. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 5

Due Process • The Constitution has two due process clauses. – The 5 th

Due Process • The Constitution has two due process clauses. – The 5 th Amendment prohibits the federal government from depriving any person of “life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. ” – The 14 th Amendment extends this prohibition to all state and local governments and extends most of the protections of the Bill of Rights to the states. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6

Types of Due Process • Why are both procedural and substantive due process necessary?

Types of Due Process • Why are both procedural and substantive due process necessary? • Both procedures and laws must be fair for due process to be effective. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 7

What is Due Process? • There is no exact definition of due process. The

What is Due Process? • There is no exact definition of due process. The meaning of due process has been defined by the Supreme Court on a case-by-case basis. – In the cartoon at right, is it possible that the prisoner’s complaint is justified? Explain. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 8

Examples of Due Process • In one procedural case, police officers broke into a

Examples of Due Process • In one procedural case, police officers broke into a suspect’s room and later pumped his stomach to recover evidence of drugs. The Court threw out this case as a violation of due process. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 9

Examples of Due Process, cont. • In a substantive due process case, the Court

Examples of Due Process, cont. • In a substantive due process case, the Court ruled that an Oregon law requiring children to attend only public schools violated due process because it was unfair to prevent children from attending private schools. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10

Examples, cont. • Standards for due process apply to the collection of evidence, including

Examples, cont. • Standards for due process apply to the collection of evidence, including forensic evidence. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 11

The Police Power • States have a reserved police power to safeguard the well-being

The Police Power • States have a reserved police power to safeguard the well-being of their people. • States must balance individual rights versus the needs of society when using this power. – To protect public safety, states are allowed to test people to determine if they are drunk while driving, even without a search warrant or an individual’s consent Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 12

Police Power, cont. • States have broad authority to use their police powers in

Police Power, cont. • States have broad authority to use their police powers in the public interest. – To promote health, states can require child vaccinations, make laws to reduce pollution, and limit the sale of alcohol and tobacco. – To promote general welfare, states can aid the medically needy and require young people to attend school. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 13

Police Power, cont. • To promote morals, states can regulate gambling and outlaw prostitution.

Police Power, cont. • To promote morals, states can regulate gambling and outlaw prostitution. • To promote safety, states can require the use of seat belts, ban the use of cell phones while driving, and punish drunk drivers. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 14

Right to Privacy • The Constitution does not specifically mention the right to privacy.

Right to Privacy • The Constitution does not specifically mention the right to privacy. • The Supreme Court has ruled that under the 14 th Amendment’s Due Process Clause, individuals have a broad right to be free from unwanted government intrusions into their personal privacy. • Cases involving state attempts to limit access to abortion have tested this right. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 15

Roe v. Wade • In the 1973 case Roe v. Wade, the Court struck

Roe v. Wade • In the 1973 case Roe v. Wade, the Court struck down a Texas law that made abortion illegal unless needed to save the mother’s life. • The Court ruled that: – In the first trimester of pregnancy, a state must recognize a woman’s right to an abortion. – The state can regulate abortions in the second trimester of pregnancy. – The state can ban abortions in the third trimester unless they are medically necessary. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 16

Changes to Roe v. Wade • Checkpoint: How has the Supreme Court modified its

Changes to Roe v. Wade • Checkpoint: How has the Supreme Court modified its Roe v. Wade ruling in later decisions? – The Court has allowed states to ban abortions in publicly operated hospitals or clinics. – The Court has upheld state laws requiring minors to notify a parent before obtaining an abortion. – The Court has allowed state laws that place “reasonable limits” on a woman’s right to an abortion if no undue burden is caused. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 17

Recent Cases • Changes in the membership of the Supreme Court can alter how

Recent Cases • Changes in the membership of the Supreme Court can alter how the Court interprets a case. – In 2000, the Court struck down a state ban on partial-birth abortions as representing an “undue burden” on women. – In 2007, the Court upheld a federal law banning the same procedure, arguing that it did not place an undue burden on women. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 18

Review • Now that you have learned about why the concept of due process

Review • Now that you have learned about why the concept of due process is important to a free society, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. – To what extent has the judiciary protected the rights of privacy, security, and personal freedom? Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 19

Chapter 20: Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights Section 2

Chapter 20: Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights Section 2

Objectives 1. Outline Supreme Court decisions regarding slavery and involuntary servitude. 2. Explain the

Objectives 1. Outline Supreme Court decisions regarding slavery and involuntary servitude. 2. Explain the intent and application of the 2 nd Amendment’s protection of the right to keep and bear arms. 3. Summarize the constitutional provisions designed to guarantee security of home and person. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 21

Key Terms • involuntary servitude: forced labor • discrimination: prejudice or unfairness • writs

Key Terms • involuntary servitude: forced labor • discrimination: prejudice or unfairness • writs of assistance: blanket search warrants used by British customs officials to invade and search private homes • probable cause: reasonable suspicion of a crime • exclusionary rule: rule that states evidence gained illegally by the police cannot be used at the trial of the person from whom it was seized Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 22

Introduction • How does the Constitution protect the freedom and security of the person?

Introduction • How does the Constitution protect the freedom and security of the person? – The 13 th Amendment outlaws slavery and many forms of involuntary servitude. – The 2 nd Amendment protects the right to bear arms. – The 4 th Amendment protects against unreasonable searches and seizures. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 23

13 th Amendment • The 13 th Amendment outlawed slavery in 1865. • What

13 th Amendment • The 13 th Amendment outlawed slavery in 1865. • What kinds of involuntary servitude are permitted today? – Citizens are drafted into the military. – Convicts can be imprisoned and forced to work. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 24

13 th Amendment, cont. • For many years the Supreme Court allowed racial discrimination

13 th Amendment, cont. • For many years the Supreme Court allowed racial discrimination by private individuals and businesses. • Beginning in 1968, the Court began ruling that racial discrimination violates the 13 th Amendment. • Under current laws, all citizens must have an equal right to buy, sell, and hold property and to enter and enforce contracts. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 25

2 nd Amendment • The 2 nd Amendment protects “the right of the people

2 nd Amendment • The 2 nd Amendment protects “the right of the people to keep and bear Arms. ” • There has been controversy over whether this right, which was added to protect the idea of the citizen soldier, applies to all individual citizens. 26 Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 26

2 nd Amendment, cont. • For many years the Court rejected the individual right

2 nd Amendment, cont. • For many years the Court rejected the individual right to bear arms and upheld laws that banned some firearms. • The Court ruled in 2008 that ownership of handguns for self-defense cannot be banned, though their sale and possession can be regulated in some cases for public safety. Future cases on gun control laws will surely follow. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 27

Home Security • The 3 rd Amendment forbids soldiers from being housed in private

Home Security • The 3 rd Amendment forbids soldiers from being housed in private homes without the owner’s consent except in wartime. • The 4 th Amendment was adopted to prevent the use of blanket search warrants to search private property. – This same right is provided by each state constitution and is applied to the states by the 14 th Amendment. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 28

Probable Cause • In most situations, police officers looking for evidence must first gain

Probable Cause • In most situations, police officers looking for evidence must first gain a search warrant from a court by showing that they have probable cause to suspect a crime. – This rule does not apply if the evidence of a crime is in plain view. – Police officers do not need a warrant to search a suspect or the immediate area after making a legal arrest. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 29

Probable Cause, cont. • Police officers must have reasonable suspicion that a crime has

Probable Cause, cont. • Police officers must have reasonable suspicion that a crime has occurred or is about take place before they stop and arrest or search a person. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 30

Probable Cause, cont. • Today police need probable cause, but not a warrant, to

Probable Cause, cont. • Today police need probable cause, but not a warrant, to search vehicles and passengers that they have lawfully stopped or suspect of being involved in a crime. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 31

Exclusionary Rule • Under the exclusionary rule, evidence gained illegally by police cannot be

Exclusionary Rule • Under the exclusionary rule, evidence gained illegally by police cannot be used as evidence against the person from whom it was seized. – This is meant to limit police misconduct, but critics say it protects criminals. • The Supreme Court has ruled that federal and school district drug-testing programs are legal and do not require warrants. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 32

Mapp v. Ohio • Mapp v. Ohio, 1961, extended the exclusionary rule to the

Mapp v. Ohio • Mapp v. Ohio, 1961, extended the exclusionary rule to the states. • State and local police cannot use evidence gained by unreasonable searches and seizures in court. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 33

Exceptions • The exclusionary rule may not apply in any of the following situations:

Exceptions • The exclusionary rule may not apply in any of the following situations: – The evidence would have been discovered legally. – Police fail to announce their presence before serving a warrant but do not endanger anyone by doing so. – Officers make an honest mistake by accidentally performing a search with a faulty warrant or searching the wrong place. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 34

Patriot Act • The Patriot Act was passed in 2001 to increase the government’s

Patriot Act • The Patriot Act was passed in 2001 to increase the government’s power to fight terrorism. – The Act allows federal agents to conduct searches of a suspect’s home when no one is there and to collect visual and written evidence without a warrant. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 35

Wiretapping • Checkpoint: How did the Court’s ruling in Katz v. United States differ

Wiretapping • Checkpoint: How did the Court’s ruling in Katz v. United States differ from its ruling in Olmstead v. United States? – In Olmstead, the Court held that an electronic wiretap did not need a warrant because it was not a physical search. – In Katz, the Court ruled that people have a right to private communications and that wiretaps required warrants. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 36

Wiretapping, cont. • The Bush administration authorized warrantless wiretaps of Americans suspected to have

Wiretapping, cont. • The Bush administration authorized warrantless wiretaps of Americans suspected to have ties to terrorism. • When this secret program was revealed, the administration defended its actions as a reasonable use of the President’s authority as commander in chief. • This issue remains unresolved. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 37

Review • Now that you have learned about how the Constitution protects the freedom

Review • Now that you have learned about how the Constitution protects the freedom and security of the person, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. – To what extent has the judiciary protected the rights of privacy, security, and personal freedom? Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 38

Chapter 20: Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights Section 3

Chapter 20: Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights Section 3

Objectives 1. Define writ of habeas corpus, bills of attainder, and ex post facto

Objectives 1. Define writ of habeas corpus, bills of attainder, and ex post facto laws. 2. Outline how the right to a grand jury and the guarantee against double jeopardy help safeguard the rights of the accused. 3. Describe issues that arise from guarantees of speedy and public trials. 4. Determine what constitutes a fair trial by jury. 5. Examine the right to an adequate defense and the guarantee against self-incrimination. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 40

Key Terms • writ of habeas corpus: a court order demanding that a prisoner

Key Terms • writ of habeas corpus: a court order demanding that a prisoner be brought before the court and reason given why they should not be released • bill of attainder: a law allowing a person to be punished without a trial • ex post facto law: a law applied to an act committed before the law was passed • grand jury: the formal device by which a person can be accused of a serious crime • indictment: a formal complaint made to a grand jury that charges the accused with one or more crimes Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 41

Key Terms, cont. • presentment: a formal accusation brought by a grand jury •

Key Terms, cont. • presentment: a formal accusation brought by a grand jury • information: an affidavit in which a prosecutor swears there is enough evidence to justify a trial • double jeopardy: principle that holds that a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime • bench trial: a trial heard only by a judge, with no jury • Miranda rule: the requirement that police officers must inform suspects of their constitutional rights before questioning them Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 42

Introduction • What protections does the Constitution set out for persons accused of crimes?

Introduction • What protections does the Constitution set out for persons accused of crimes? – It protects the writ of habeas corpus. – It bans the passages of bills of attainder or ex post facto laws. – It requires grand juries for federal indictments. – It bans double jeopardy. – It guarantees a speedy and public trial. – It protects people from self-incrimination. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 43

Habeas Corpus • The Constitution and the state constitutions protect the right of the

Habeas Corpus • The Constitution and the state constitutions protect the right of the accused to be brought before a court to hear the charges against them. This is called a writ of habeas corpus. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 44

Habeas Corpus, cont. • Habeas corpus can be suspended only by Congress or the

Habeas Corpus, cont. • Habeas corpus can be suspended only by Congress or the President during an invasion or rebellion. – This happened during the Civil War. – Hawaii’s governor illegally suspended habeas corpus after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 45

Limits on Laws • The Constitution bans the federal and state governments from passing

Limits on Laws • The Constitution bans the federal and state governments from passing bills of attainder or ex post facto laws. – Bills of attainder are laws that punish someone without a court trial. Such laws would violate the separation of powers between the legislative and judicial branches. – Ex post fact laws are criminal laws that apply to acts committed before the laws were passed and that harm the accused. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 46

Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 47

Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 47

Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 48

Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 48

Grand Jury • Most states do not use grand juries. • Federal prosecutors must

Grand Jury • Most states do not use grand juries. • Federal prosecutors must use grand juries to indict, or charge, people accused of federal crimes. – A grand jury is made up of 16 to 23 people from the area of a district court. – The jurors hear only evidence against the accused. If at least 12 agree there is enough evidence, the case goes to trial. Otherwise the charges are dropped. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 49

Double Jeopardy • The 5 th Amendment says that no person can be tried

Double Jeopardy • The 5 th Amendment says that no person can be tried twice for the same crime. – A person can be charged with both a federal and a state crime for the same act. They can then be tried in both federal and state court. – Double jeopardy does not apply when a trial ends with no decision or when cases are appealed to higher courts. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 50

Speedy and Public Trial • The 6 th Amendment grants the right to a

Speedy and Public Trial • The 6 th Amendment grants the right to a speedy and public trial. – To determine if a trial was delayed for too long, the Court looks at the length of the delay, the reasons for it, whether the delay hurt the defendant, and whether the defendant asked for a speedy trial. – Too much publicity can harm the fairness of a trial. – Federal trials may not be televised but state trials can. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 51

Trial by Jury • Federal crimes and serious state crimes are tried by jury.

Trial by Jury • Federal crimes and serious state crimes are tried by jury. – Most juries have 12 members, but some have as few as six. – Jury members must be drawn from a cross section of the community where the crime occurred. • A defendant can waive the right to a jury trial and be tried by a judge alone. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 52

Adequate Defense • Every person accused of a crime has a right to the

Adequate Defense • Every person accused of a crime has a right to the best possible defense under the circumstances. • The 6 th Amendment says that a defendant has the right: – To know the charges against him or her – To confront and question witnesses – To subpoena witnesses – To have counsel for his or her defense Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 53

Adequate Defense, cont. • In Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963 the Court ruled that an

Adequate Defense, cont. • In Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963 the Court ruled that an attorney must be provided to a defendant who cannot afford one. – Gideon wrote to the Supreme Court to appeal his conviction. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 54

Self-Incrimination • The 5 th Amendment protects people from being forced to incriminate themselves.

Self-Incrimination • The 5 th Amendment protects people from being forced to incriminate themselves. – It applies to many types of legal proceedings. – It does not apply to being fingerprinted or photographed. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 55

Miranda v. Arizona, 1966 • Checkpoint: What does the Miranda rule require of police

Miranda v. Arizona, 1966 • Checkpoint: What does the Miranda rule require of police officers? – Suspects must be informed of their constitutional rights, including their right to a lawyer and to not incriminate themselves, before they are questioned. – The rule is controversial and is being refined on a case-by-case basis. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 56

Review • Now that you have learned about the protections set by the Constitution

Review • Now that you have learned about the protections set by the Constitution for persons accused of crime, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. – To what extent has the judiciary protected the rights of privacy, security, and personal freedom? Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 57

Chapter 20: Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights Section 4

Chapter 20: Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights Section 4

Objectives 1. Explain the purpose of bail and preventive detention. 2. Describe the Court’s

Objectives 1. Explain the purpose of bail and preventive detention. 2. Describe the Court’s interpretation of cruel and unusual punishment. 3. Outline the history of the Court’s decisions on capital punishment. 4. Define the crime of treason. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 59

Key Terms • bail: money deposited by an accused person with the court to

Key Terms • bail: money deposited by an accused person with the court to guarantee that they will appear in court • preventive detention: holding an accused person without bail to prevent them from committing a serious crime before trial • capital punishment: the death penalty • treason: the crime of fighting against the United States or giving aid and comfort to its enemies Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 60

Introduction • How does the Constitution set limits on punishments for crime? – The

Introduction • How does the Constitution set limits on punishments for crime? – The Constitution prohibits excessive bail for accused people awaiting trial. – The 8 th Amendment bans cruel and unusual punishment. – The Supreme Court has set limits on the forms of execution allowed by the 8 th Amendment. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 61

Bail • Bail is money posted by a defendant with the court to guarantee

Bail • Bail is money posted by a defendant with the court to guarantee that they will appear in court when called. • Bail exists for two reasons: – A person should not be jailed until his or her guilt has been established; – A defendant is better able to prepare for trial outside of a jail. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 62

Bail, cont. • The amount of bail is set by the court for each

Bail, cont. • The amount of bail is set by the court for each particular case. – The more serious the crime or the wealthier the defendant, the higher the bail amount. – Poorer defendants may be released “on their own recognizance” without posting bail. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 63

Bail, cont. • The Constitution does not require that bail be set for all

Bail, cont. • The Constitution does not require that bail be set for all crimes. • A defendant can make a legal appeal over the denial of bail or the amount of bail required. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 64

Preventive Detention • People accused of federal and state crimes can be held in

Preventive Detention • People accused of federal and state crimes can be held in preventive detention if it is suspected they would commit further crimes before trial. – Critics say this amounts to punishing the accused before they are convicted. – The Supreme Court has upheld this practice as a means of protecting the community. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 65

Cruel and Unusual Punishment • The 8 th amendment forbids “cruel and unusual punishment”

Cruel and Unusual Punishment • The 8 th amendment forbids “cruel and unusual punishment” and the 14 th Amendment extends this protection to the states. – The Supreme Court denies most claims of cruel and unusual punishment. – The Court has upheld California’s “three strikes” law, which sets a minimum sentence of 25 years for those convicted of a third crime. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 66

Cruel and Unusual Punishment, cont. • The Court has ruled that crowded prison conditions

Cruel and Unusual Punishment, cont. • The Court has ruled that crowded prison conditions do not qualify as cruel and unusual punishment. • What point is the cartoonist making here? Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 67

Capital Punishment • Checkpoint: What was the significance of the Court’s ruling in Furman

Capital Punishment • Checkpoint: What was the significance of the Court’s ruling in Furman v. Georgia? – The Court struck down Georgia’s laws punishable by the death penalty because those laws were not fairly administered-mostly poor people and African Americans were executed. – This ruling led many states to rewrite their capital punishment laws. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 68

Capital Punishment, cont. • The Court has ruled that state laws requiring the death

Capital Punishment, cont. • The Court has ruled that state laws requiring the death penalty for certain crimes are unconstitutional. • The Court allows state laws that use a two -stage approach to capital punishment: – First a trial is held to decide if the accused is innocent or guilty – A second proceeding then determines if the death penalty is justified. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 69

Capital Punishment Limits • The death penalty can only be imposed for crimes that

Capital Punishment Limits • The death penalty can only be imposed for crimes that result in the death of the victim. • The death penalty cannot be imposed on people who are mentally challenged or who were under age 18 when they committed their crime. • A jury, not a judge, must decide whether the death penalty will be imposed. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 70

Capital Punishment, cont. • The Court has determined that the death penalty is constitutional.

Capital Punishment, cont. • The Court has determined that the death penalty is constitutional. • Few people sentenced to death are executed, but some innocent people have been freed from death row. • The American people are evenly divided on the issue. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 71

Treason • Treason is the only crime defined in the Constitution. – It applies

Treason • Treason is the only crime defined in the Constitution. – It applies to all U. S. citizens who engage in war against the United States or who aid and comfort America’s enemies. – It can only be committed during wartime, but Congress has made it a crime to conspire against the United States or commit espionage or sabotage during peacetime. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 72

Treason, cont. • Checkpoint: Who may be convicted of treason? What is the maximum

Treason, cont. • Checkpoint: Who may be convicted of treason? What is the maximum penalty for this crime? – Any American citizen can be convicted of treason. – The maximum penalty is death, but no one has ever been executed for treason. – Most state constitutions also condemn treason. Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 73

Review • Now that you have learned about how the Constitution sets limits on

Review • Now that you have learned about how the Constitution sets limits on punishments for crime, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. – To what extent has the judiciary protected the rights of privacy, security, and personal freedom? Chapter 20, Section 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 74