Slavery & Abolition Chapter 16
Abolitionists Speak Out By the 1820 s, more than 100 antislavery societies were advocating for resettlement of blacks in Africa. n Many African Americans didn’t WANT to go back to Africa, they saw America as their home. n
Call for Abolition African Americans had many white supporters for abolition, or the call to outlaw slavery. n Fueled by preachers like Charles G. Finney, who said slavery was a “great national sin”. n
William Lloyd Garrison Considered the most radical white abolitionist. n An editor who was active in religious reform movements. n Started The Liberator in 1831 calling for immediate emancipation with no payment to slaveholders. n
William Lloyd Garrison cont… Founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society in 1832 n American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833. n ¾ of supporters were African American n Whites hated him, because he attacked churches and the government for failing to condemn slavery. n
Frederick Douglass Born into slavery, but was taught to read and write by the wife of one of his owners. n Continued to self-learn even after she stopped teaching him. n By 1838, he was a skilled worker in Baltimore n Ran away from his owner to New York n
Frederick Douglass cont… Read The Liberator and was eventually sponsored by Garrison as a speaker for the American Anti-Slavery Society. n Broke from Garrison in 1847 and started his own paper, The North Star. n
Life as a Slave n n The population of slaves in America nearly doubled from 1810 -1830 to almost 2 million. By 1830 most slaves were born in the US and spoke enough English to communicate with one another. Worked from dawn til dusk on plantations that employed ten or more slaves. Some worked on smaller farms, and a few lived and worked in the cities
Urban Slavery n n Demand rose for slaves to work in mills as many whites attempted to get rich from cotton farming. Slaves began filling skilled occupations like blacksmithing and carpentry. Women and children often worked the same jobs as men. Slave owners “hired out” their slaves to factory owners and collected their pay (Frederick Douglass)
Nat Turner Rebellion Nat Turner was born into slavery and believed it was his job to lead his people out of slavery. n In August 1831, he and 80 followers attacked four plantations killing almost 60 whites. n Was eventually tried and hanged. n In retaliation, 200 blacks were killed. n
Defending Slavery Nat Turner’s rebellion sparked discussion that the only way to avoid revolts was through emancipation. n Virginia attempted to create a law to gradually abolish slavery, but was shut down 73 -58 votes. n Temporarily ended the debate in the antebellum (pre-Civil war) South. n
Backlash from Revolts n n Slave codes were created to tighten control over slaves. 1833 – AL – Forbid free and enslaved blacks from preaching the gospel unless slaveholders were present. 1835 – NC – Last state to deny the vote to free blacks. In some states, blacks lost the right to own guns, purchase alcohol, assemble in public, testify in court, own property, learn to read or write, or work independently.
Proslavery Defense n n n Some advocates used the Bible to defend slavery. Believed slavery “benefitted blacks” by making them part of a prosperous Christian nation. Southerners created a “happy slave” myth in which slaves were a part of the family and lived a happier life than those in the North who worked for pennies.
Abolitionists at Work n n n Abolitionists continued to campaign for emancipation, starting with petitions to end slavery in Washington D. C. In 1836, Southerners adopted the gag rule, which limited or prevented debate on an issue. Deprived petitioners of the right to have them heard until it was repealed in 1844.