- Slides: 111
The Civil War (1861 -1865) Through Maps, Charts, Graphs & Pictures
Lincoln’s Inauguration Due to the threat of assassination, Lincoln had to slip into Washington at night partially disguised. So, he enters Washington with a nation that has 7 states who recently seceded and he has to worry about his life. No the best way to start. Inaugural Speech – Firm, but conciliatory. Lincoln made it clear that there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it. – Also, states it is impossible for the Union to separate, “PHYISICALLY SPEAKING, WE CANNOT SEPARATE. ” – Basically, no natural barrier separated North and South (Appalachians and the Mississippi both ran North-South. )
Problems with Secession What share of the national debt should the South be forced to take on? What portion of the territories should the South be allowed to have, many of which won with Southern soldiers? How would they solve the Fugitive Slave issue? Underground Railroad would only have to transport above the Ohio River and not all the way to Canada?
European Perspective For many in Europe, they would be delighted to see the American democratic experiment fail This would allow Europe to play the game of divide and conquer in America and they could quit easily defy the Monroe Doctrine without a unified strong United States.
Fort Sumter In the South, when they seceded, they took control of federal arsenals, mints, and other public property within their borders. Except for two: one of which, Fort Sumter in Charleston, was more important. So Lincoln faced with a dilemma: – Fort Sumter had enough supplies for a few weeks. – No Supplies meant the commander would have to surrender without a single shot. This seemed to weak of a response in Lincoln’s opinion. – However, if he sent reinforcements, this would cause an outbreak of war. – So, what does Lincoln choose?
Fort Sumter He chooses a middle of the road approach: – He told South Carolina that an expedition will be sent to provision the fort and not reinforce the fort. – A Union Naval force was sent, and the South saw this as an act of aggression – On April 12, 1861, the South started to bombard the fort and after 34 hours, the fort surrendered.
Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861
Response to Fort Sumter North was outraged by the attack and many started calling for war, whereas before the attack, many Northerners were content to le the South secede. So Lincoln turned a tactical defeat into a calculated victory. Lincoln issues a call for 75, 000 militiamen. He also called for a blockade of Southern ports. South saw the call for troops as an act of aggression and war. Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, and Arkansas decide to join the Confederacy and the capital was moved to Richmond Virginia.
Border States Missouri, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Kentucky. – Contained a white population more than half of the Confederacy – Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri would have doubled the manufacturing capabilities of the South and increase by more than half the amount of horses and mules. – Ohio River flowed through the North of Kentucky and would have allowed supplies transported through tributaries the Cumberland Tennessee. – Lincoln said: “I hope to have God on my side, but I have to have Kentucky”
The Union & Confederacy in 1861
Lincoln and the Border States In dealing with the border states, Lincoln was clear to say he was not fighting a war to save slavery, but to preserve the Union. This was to prevent the Border States from choosing the Confederacy. In Maryland Missouri, Lincoln declared martial law and sent troops where needed because Maryland could cut off the Capital from the North. He also sent Union troops to Missouri.
Native Americans and the Civil War Five Civilized Tribes in Oklahoma: – Most sided with the South, especially the Cherokee because many of them owned slaves. – To ensure their loyalty, the Confederate Government promised to take over payments to the tribes and invited the native Americans to send delegates to the Confederate Congress. – In return the tribes sent troops to the South. The Plain Indians and a rival faction of the Cherokee sided with the North (only to have the Union launch wars against them after the Civil War. )
North vs. South in 1861 North South Advantages ? ? Disadvantages ? ?
Rating the North & the South
Southern Advantages In the beginning, it appeared the South had many advantages: – Fight a defensive war (did not have to win the war to win its independence) – Fighting for their own institutions and way of life, their was more morale on the Confederate side – Their generals were superior at the beginning, in particular Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson – Southerners, as members of an agrarian society, were more prepared for battle. More accustomed to bearing arms and more skilled at managing horses.
Southern Disadvantages Lack of factories Huge shortages, especially in food, shoes, and clothing. Economy was a huge weakness
Northern Advantages 3/4 th of the nations wealth was in the North not only was a huge farm, but also had enormous industrial capabilities Northern economy was more diverse and robust 75% of the nations railroads were in the North controlled the seas, so they could effectively blockade the South Much more manpower and soldiers – 22 Million to 9 million in population and also the influx of immigrants added to the total Northern Disadvantages: – Lack of military commanders. Lincoln will change the command of the Army of the Potomac numerous times. Finally, Ulysses S. Grant will lead the Union army.
Slave/Free States Population, 1861
Railroad Lines, 1860
Resources: North & the South
Men Present for Duty in the Civil War
Immigrants as a % of a State’s Population in 1860
Advantages In the end, the North’s economy, population, and industrial capabilities gave it an enormous advantage. However, at the beginning of the war, the chance for Southern independence was favorable. What if’s: – – Border states had seceded Northern defeatism demanded armistice If Britain or France broke the blockade If Britain or France joined the Confederate States
Foreign Intervention Most successful revolutions had the aid of foreign intervention (think the French during the American Revolution) South counted on getting it, it did not happen, and they lost. In reality, in France and both England, amongst the ruling class, many sympathized with the South and wanted to see American Democracy fail. However, the working classes and common citizens of both France and Britain were pulling and praying for the North. In particular, they wanted to see slavery abolished and much of this was influenced by Uncle Tom’s cabin
King Cotton IN the end, King Cotton failed the South. First, the prewar years saw enormous surpluses and Britain had a stockpile of cotton. When they finally did need Southern cotton, it was 2 years into the fight and Lincoln had already issued the Emancipation Proclamation. British public opinion would not allow support for the South at that point. Cotton Famine – Relieved in many ways: 1. ) Union farmers sent over food supplies, 2. ) Cotton taken from South and sent to Britain, 3. ) Confederates able to run some pass the blockade, 4. ) Egypt and India increased production, and 5. ) other war industries in England helped with unemployment.
King Corn and King Wheat In the end, the North benefitted more from King Corn and King Wheat than the South did from King Cotton. – Ideal weather coupled with Mc. Cormick's mechanical reaper produced huge surplus of grains and corn – Britain had bad harvests, so had to import Northern farm goods – Interfering with the blockade or entering the war on the side of the South meant risking access to the Northern granary.
Diplomacy Trent Affair – U. S. navy stopped a British mail ship carrying two Confederate diplomats. – British were outraged and some war preparations began. – In the end, Lincoln returned the diplomats. Alabama – British built ship, officered by Confederates, but manned by British. – Captured over 60 vessels and was essentially a pirate ship. – In the end, it was destroyed by a larger Union ship off the coast of France. – Still, British continued to build Confederate raiders. In total 250 Union merchant marine ships were captured. – Eventually, the British apologized and paid reparations for its role in the Alabama affair.
Diplomacy Laird’s rams – Two ships for the Confederacy being built in Britain. Designed to destroy wooden ships with its iron rams and large guns. – Union makes it clear that if the ships were released, that a possible war would occur. – Last minute, British government relented and bought the ships for their own Royal navy Canada – – – Some Southerners launched attacks from Canada in Vermont Irish Americans were angry, launched attacks in 1866 and 1870. In 1867, Dominion of Canada established. Napoleon III and Maximilian – Napoleon III placed Austrian Archduke Maximilian as emperor of Mexico – In 1865, Seward made it clear this was not ok. Napoleon III rescinded Maximilian’s throne.
The Leaders of the Confederacy Pres. Jefferson Davis VP Alexander Stevens
Confederate States Confederate Constitution had an enormous weakness: – Created during secession, it logically could not ban secession – Jefferson Davis wanted a strong central government, but spent most his time fighting state rightists in the Confederate government. In many ways, the Confederate states were 11 independent countries.
The Confederate “White House”
The Confederate Seal MOTTO “With God As Our Vindicator”
A Northern View of Jeff Davis
Lincoln vs. Davis was a good administrator, but was handcuffed by state rightists and never had great support. Lincoln had troubles too, but overall much less than Davis. – North was much more stable and established – Lincoln was great at reading and manipulating public opinion
Limitations on Wartime Liberties Lincoln felt compelled to extend the power of the presidency and limit some personal liberty as a means to hold the Union together. Congress generally accepted and approved of Lincoln’s act, also seeing it as necessary for the crisis. – – – Issued a blockade Increased size of the military 2 Million dollars appropriated without consent of Congress Suspended habeas corpus, so anti-Unionists could be arrested (Supreme Court said only Congress could make this decision) Supervised voting in Border Elections Suspension of some newspapers and arrest of some editors
Conscription and Draft Riots In 1863, federal conscription passed for the first time. Provisions unfair to the poor, because for $300, rich boys could pay for exemption or for a substitute. In New York City, draft riots broke out, especially amongst the Irish. However, still 90% of the Union troops were volunteer. Who were Bounty jumpers or bounty brokers? All told, the North had 200, 000 deserters. ‘Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight. ”
The North Initiates the Draft, 1863
Buy Your Way Out of Military Service
Recruiting Irish Immigrants in NYC
Recruiting Blacks in NYC
NYC Draft Riots, (July 13 -16, 1863)
NYC Draft Riots, (July 13 -16, 1863)
Raising Revenue North: – Excise tax – Income tax – Increased tariff (Morrill Tariff Act increased 5 -10% the tariffs of 1857) – Greenback money, issued 450 million dollars. Backed by nations credit, so fluctuated often – Borrowing, issued bonds. This generated a lot of revenue. – National banking System- in effect until 1913. First step towards unified banking since the Bank wars. It unified the currency and made it more secure.
Raising Revenue South – Also sold bonds and collected 400 million dollars – 10% levy or tax on farm produce – Little to no direct taxation due to state rightists. Only 1% of revenue raised this way. – Printed currency as money dried up, causing hyper inflation – Dollar worth 1. 6 cents when Lee surrendered – 9, 000 percent inflation rate in the South compared to 80 percent in the North.
Inflation in the South
Wartime Economic Boom The economy in the North actually grew and at the war’s end was in many ways more prosperous than before the war. A millionaire class emerged for the first time. Some made their riches by illegally or dishonestly profiting from the war. Sewing machine and mechanical reaper improved production. Petroleum based products discovered also
Women and the War New opportunities for women – Took the jobs that men left behind – 500 girls took jobs in the government – Demand for shoes and the increase of the sewing machine led women to work in factories and cloths industry – Other women actually accompanied their husbands to the front lines, disguised as men. – Some functioned as spies. – A lot functioned as nurses U. S. Sanitary Commission (organized by first women physician Dr. Elisabeth Blackwell Heloped train women to be nurses. Dorothea Dix and Clara Barton assisted the Union army and Sally Tomkins assisted the Confederate Army, even receiving the rank of captain for her services
Crushed Cotton Kingdom Possessed 30% of the wealth before the war and only 12 percent of the nation’s wealth in 1870. Before the war, southern per capita was 2/3 rd the per capita of the North. After the war, it was only 2/5 th. In the end, the Northern Captains of Industry won. Industry proved to be more profitable than agriculture and the South’s defeat meant that Northern industry was free to expand further dominate the American economic and political life.
The Civil War Lincoln envisioned that the war would only last for 90 days. However, the First Battle of Bull run would change this view. Lincoln decides to attack a Confederate force 30 miles southwest of Washington. Goals – Show superior force of the Union. – With a quick defeat, demoralize the South’s dreams of succession – Perhaps, if possible, attack Richmond some 100 miles to the South
Overview of the North’s Civil War Strategy:
The “Anaconda” Plan
Paradox of Bull Run Important psychological and political consequences: – North Defeat better than victory for the North. Dispelled all dreams of a quick war and victory This convinced the Union of the need to focus on winning the war and focus on putting all their resources towards winning the war. – South Victory worse than defeat Inflated their already overconfident egos and many soldiers became deserters and enlistment fell. War preparations slacked, especially for the long war ahead of the.
Battle of Bull Run st (1 Manassas) July, 1861 Stonewall Jackson earned his nickname in Leading the Confederates to Victory. He was Also aided by reinforcements. The Union army Scattered and fled. Confederates were too Exhausted to pursue them. As a result, the Confederate soldiers ate the lunches that Union Spectators brought with them. Hence, the term “military picnic. ”
Peninsular Campaign George Mc. Clellan was put in charge of the Army of the Potomac. – Positives: He was a superb organizer and drillmaster. Injected morale into his troops Hated to sacrifice his troops, he was idolized by them – Negatives Overly cautious and wanted everything to be perfect before attacking, which rarely happens in war Lincoln said he had the “slows” Due to his inaction, the Potomac became known as “All Quiet on the Potomac” and Mc. Clellan known as ‘Tardy George. ” George Mc. Clellan
Peninsular Campaign Spring of 1862, Mc. Clellan finally decides to attack, using a waterborne approach to finally attack Richmond. He left with 100, 000 soldiers. One month to take Yorktown Last minute, reinforcements diverted and General Lee launched a counterattack outside Richmond, known as the Seven Days’ Battle. Union forces drove back to the sea and abandoned the Peninsular Campaign as a costly failure. Mc. Clellan replaced as General.
Lee’s Ironic Victory Lee’s victory was brilliant and stunning in the Seven Days' Battle. However, it was also ironic – If Richmond was taken, war may have ended and slavery most likely would not have been eliminated. – Lee’s victory almost ensured that the war would not end until a total defeat of the South and also slavery was abolished. – This is evidenced in the fact that Lincoln starts to change his rhetoric after Lee’s victory to emancipation and abolition.
Lincoln’s Generals Winfield Scott Irwin Mc. Dowell George Mc. Clellan Joseph Hooker Ambrose Burnside Ulysses S. Grant George Meade George Mc. Clellan, Again!
Mc. Clellan: I Can Do It All!
The Confederate Generals “Stonewall” Jackson Nathan Bedford Forrest George Pickett Jeb Stuart James Longstreet Robert E. Lee
Union’s total war 6 components – Slowly suffocate the South by blockading its coasts – Liberate the slaves and undermine the economic foundations of the South – Cut Confederacy in half by seizing control of the Mississippi – Chop the Confederacy to pieces by sending troops through Georgia and the Carolinas – Decapitate the South by capturing its capital, Richmond – Try anywhere to engage the enemy’s main strength and grind it into submission (Grant’s idea)
Union Blockade Difficult to blockade 3500 miles of coast, so the North concentrated on major ports and docks. Why did Britain not defy the blockade? – Many reasons, but one major is it did not want to tie its hands in case of future war. Basically, they may want to use it in the future, so don’t violate other blockades. Blockade running still occurred, especially as prices rose and profits were to be made. Most successful were swift gray painted steamers built in Scotland. Risks were great, but profits sometimes near 700%.
The Battle of the Ironclads, March, 1862 The Monitor vs. the Merrimac Important naval battle because it made Wooden ships less viable and more Vulnerable to attack. The world’s Navies would start to invest in iron ships
Damage on the Deck of the Monitor
Second Battle of Bull Run After defeating Mc. Clellan at Richmond, Lee decided to head North with his army At the Second Battle of Bull Run, he faced off against General John Pope boasted that in the western theater, he only saw the backs of the Confederate soldiers. However, at Bull Run, Lee and the Confederates destroyed Pope. Lee then decided to attack into Maryland, for two main reasons: – 1. A bold victory in Union territory might convince foreign intervention – 2. Maryland was a Border State and still wavering on its decision to join the Union. Lee hoped to seduce Maryland to the Confederate side.
War in the East: 1861 -1862
Antietam Little Mac returned as General of the Army of the Potomac. His soldiers hailed his return and where excited to have him back Some Union soldiers found a copy of Lee’s battle plans for Antietam wrapped around a pack of cigars (discarded by a Confederate officer). This intelligence allowed Mc. Clellan to halt Lee’s advancement North.
Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” September 17, 1862 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=s 1 a. ZQ_WVy. G 0&safety_mode=true& persist_safety_mode=1&safe=activ e http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=WSILLYh. Yd TY&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode= 1&safe=active 23, 000 casualties
Antietam's Importance Bloodiest day of the Civil War (23, 000 casualties) Confederate’s were never sop close to victory as on that day, but victory was elusive. Consequently, neither the British nor the French decided to aid the Confederate States. Antietam also allowed Lincoln to get his needed victory for the Emancipation Proclamation (written in summer of 1862, he needed to wait for a victory before announcing it. ) By issuing the Proclamation, Civil War became not only a war to save the Union, but also a moral war to end slavery. Now, the nature of the war will change. It will become a war of subjugation, of complete destruction of the South
The Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation. – Declared “forever free’ the slaves of the Confederate States still in rebellion. – Border States not affected nor specific conquered areas in the South – 800, 000 total not set free So, essentially, where Lincoln could legally free slaves, he did not. And where he could not legally free slaves, he did. Thus, as noted, the Emancipation Proclamation was much more proclamation than emancipation.
Emancipation Proclamation Many slaves voted with their feet by fleeing their plantations and joining the Union armies as they approached. In total, 1 of every 7 slaves escaped to the Union during the war. Slavery not officially legally abolished until the 13 th amendment in 1865. The Proclamation also changed the nature of the war because both sides understood that there was not chance at a negotiated settlement.
Emancipation in 1863 Public opinion was varied. Horace Greely championed the announcement. Other abolitionists said it did not go far enough. Some even thought Lincoln Had gone too far. Border States and the Old Northwest in particular. There was a movement in The North against Supporting the “Abolition War. ” Many Border State soldiers deserted, stating they fought To save the union, not for Abolition.
The Southern View of Emancipation South claimed that Lincoln was trying to conjure up the “hellish passions” of slave insurrection.
African-American Recruiting As emancipation Poster Happened, Lincoln also Moved to enlist black Soldiers. By war’s end, 180, 000 Blacks served in the Union army. Most were From the slave states, But some came from Free states too. 10% of all enlisted Soldiers and 2 regiments In Massachusetts were All-black regiments. Famous 54 th regiment Led by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw.
The Famous 54 th Massachusetts http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=SPiv 2 I PTDNk&safety_mode=true&persist_safet y_mode=1&safe=active
August Saint-Gaudens Memorial to Col. Robert Gould Shaw
African-Americans in Civil War Battles Why did many blacks Enlist? 1. ) After the proclamation, Many joined in the fight to Eliminate slavery 2. ) also a means to prove one’s worth as a man and as a way to strengthen claim for citizenship. In total, over 80, 000 enlisted Black soldiers died. Many, When captured were put to Death as slaves in revolt and The south did not recognize Them as prisoners of war Until 1864.
The Confederacy and Slaves South did not enlist black Soldiers until the last month Of the war. However, many Slaves were forced to work In labor battalions However, slaves often Sabotaged the Confederate Effort: - “home guards” had to protect From slave rebellions -slowdowns, strikes, open defiance diminished productivity. Black Troops Freeing Slaves As “intelligent contraband, ” Slaves served as spies, guides And scouts for the Union.
A Bit of War History: Contraband, Recruit, Veteran, by Thomas Waterman Wood, 1865– 1866 This painting dramatically commemorates the contributions and sacrifices of the 180, 000 African Americans who served in the Union army during the Civil War. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Charles Stewart Smith, 1884 (84. 12 a/b/c) Photograph © 1991 The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville Mc. Clellan was replaced again by Lincoln, this Time by General A. E. Burnside. He stated He was unfit for the responsibility than proved it At the Battle of Fredericksburg. Burnside launched a frontal attack on Lee and The Confederate Troops, only to have 10, 000 Of his men slaughtered. This became known as “Burnside’s Slaughter Pen. ” Next came General Hooker. On May 2 -4, 1863, Lee attacked at Chancellorsville with inferior Forces and by having Stonewall Jackson attack The Union flank. Strategy worked and Lee got One of his most impressive and brilliant victories Of the war. However, Stonewall Jackson was Shot by friendly fire and died a few days later
The Road to Gettysburg: 1863
Meade and Gettysburg Meade told, three days before the war, that he Would lead the Union at Gettysburg. Meade, by accident, took up a position atop A low ridge. There his 92, 000 Union troops Looked out at Lee’s 76, 000 Confederate troops. Battle raged on for 3 days from July 1 -July 3 1863. Deciding push was Pickets charge. However, he Was unsuccessful and this broke the back of the Confederates at Gettysburg. Davis already sent a delegation to negotiate peace Terms to D. C. Lincoln refused to let peace mission Pass.
Gettysburg Casualties http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ar. Gg 3 Twqmi 8&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_ mode=1&safe=active http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Bv. A 0 J_2 Zp. IQ&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_ mode=1&safe=active
Ulysses S. Grant Graduated from West Point, a mediocre student, Who was a great horsemen and decent at math. Fought in the Mexican War, but was commissioned To frontier posts after the war, and the boredom and Loneliness drove him to drink. He resigned from the Army instead of being Court-martialed due to his drunkenness. When the Civil War came, he was working in his Father’s leather store for $50 month. He became a colonel in the volunteer army and over Time his experience coupled with his audacity Led to his meteoric rise By fighting in Tennessee, he made a name for himself. At Fort Donelson and Fort Henry, he won and his terms were “unconditional and immediate surrender
Ulysses S. Grant Victories in Tennessee important: – Linked Kentucky closer to the Union – Opened up Tennessee to the Union and also access to Georgia, the heart of Dixie Grant, however, loses at Shiloh, on April 6 -7, 1862. Lincoln refused to remove Grant because he actually fights. When told of his drinking, Lincoln does not care and says he will send a barrel of whatever Grant drinks to all of his generals.
Extensive Legislation Passed Without the South in Congress 1861 – Morrill Tariff Act 1862 – Homestead Act 1862 – Legal Tender Act 1862 – Morrill Land Grant Act 1862 – Emancipation Proclamation (1/1/1863) 1863 – Pacific Railway Act 1863 – National Bank Act
The War in the West, 1862 -1863: New Orleans Vicksburg Port Hudson
Union Victories at Gettysburg was July 3 and at Vicksburg it was July 4 th Victories important: – Mississippi was controlled by Union and cut South in half. – Also as important, the economic livelihood of many of the border states depended on the Mississippi. With the Union in control, it helps diminish some anger from fighting an “Abolition War. ” – Diplomatically, both France and Britain favor the Union (stop sales of Laird rams and also six naval vessels to Confederates)
Grant and Tennessee Again Grant was next transferred to the Tennessee war front where Confederates had pushed back Union forces. He wins at the Battle Above the Clouds near Chattanooga. Tennessee is cleared of Confederates and this leaves Georgia vulnerable to attack
Sherman’ s “March to the Sea” through Georgia, 1864 http: //www. history. com/videos/sherman-and-theburning-of-atlanta#sherman-and-the-burning-ofatlanta
Sherman’s March and Total War http: //www. history. com/videos/sherman-and-the-burningof-atlanta#shermans-legacy-hero-or-monster Total War – 60, 000 soldiers burned through Georgia, tore up railroads, bayoneted family portraits, and sacked cities. – Goal was to destroy all supply chains and the ability for the South to make war. Also, destroy the morale of the South by not only waging war at the front, but also on their homes. – Even though Sherman used brutal tactics, he in many ways most likely shortened the war and saved lives. – After sacking Savannah, Sherman and his soldiers moved to South Carolina, where the destruction was worse. Columbia was set ablaze much like Atlanta and South Carolina was destroyed as “hellhole of secession. ”
1864 Presidential Election Politics continue, even during war. And Lincoln faced many issues within his own party during the 1864 election: – Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War: Led by Secretary of the treasury Salmon Chase and formed in late 1861. Represented a radical group of republicans who resented the expansion of the presidency and pushed hard for abolition.
Northern Democrats Stephen Douglas died seven weeks into the war. Thus, the N. Democrats were without their strong leader. Consequently, factions grew within the party. – – – War Democrats- supported the Lincoln administration Peace Democrats- did not support Lincoln. Copperheads- openly defiant to Lincoln and his administration. Attacked on the draft and especially after 1863, they were against emancipation.
The Peace Movement: Copperheads Clement Vallandigham Notorious troublemaker. Spoke up againt The war and was tried for treasonable Utterances in a military tribunal. Escapes to Canada, still runs for governor of Ohio. Edward Hale was inspired by Vallandigham’s Story and wrote The Man Without a Country
1864 Copperhead Campaign Poster
Cartoon Lampoons Democratic Copperheads in 1864
1864 Election So, the Republicans joined With the War Democrats to Form the Union Party. They chose Andrew Johnson as his running mate. The Democrats nominated General Mc. Clellan. Lincoln’s reelection was in doubt. But a sequence Union victories (Mobile, Atlanta, and in Virginia) near election day helped Lincoln at the polls. Pres. Lincoln (R) George Mc. Clellan (D)
Presidential Election Results: 1864 Many soldiers were sent home To support Lincoln at the polls. Some were even allowed to Vote from the front lines. The victories coupled with the “bayonet vote” allowed Lincoln To win.
The Final Virginia Campaign: 1864 -1865 Lincoln replaced Meade with Grant. Basically, Lincoln needed a general who was a bulldog who would pursue Lee and the Confederates regardless of casualties. Grant decided to attack the Confederate armies at the same time so they could be destroyed Piecemeal.
Grant and Lee Grant attacked furiously and suffered many casualties. Many were aghast at his tactics and called him Grant the Butcher. – But, Grant suffered a casualty rate of 1 for every 10 soldiers. Lee had a rate of 1 for every 5 soldiers. – Also, Lee turned the fight into a pure defensive war because he knew he did not have the numbers to fight aggressively. – Nonetheless, grant understood he outnumbered Lee 2: 1 and that he would fight to the bitter end.
The Progress of War: 18611865
Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865 The war is over; the rebels are our countrymen again.
Ford’s Theater (April 14, 1865)
The Assassin John Wilkes Booth
Now He Belongs to the Ages!
Casualties on Both Sides
Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars
Costs of the War Direct costs were $15 billion. However, that does not account for continuing expenses Also, the state rightists also die during the war. The national government emerged stronger than ever and the dual nightmares of nullification and secession are laid to rest In the end, the Civil war also preserves democratic values and American democracy.