- Slides: 21
DEFINITION OF MULTICULTURALISM Multiculturalism: the co-existence of diverse cultures In Canada, it is when people are encouraged to retain their heritage and culture in their new country Canada's was the first government in the world to make an official multiculturalism policy in 1971
WHAT PERCENT DO YOU THINK? How many Canadians were born outside Canada? a) 10% b) 20% c) 35% d) 50% How many Torontonians were born outside Canada? a) 10% b) 20% c) 35% d) 50%
NATION OF IMMIGRANTS • Over 140 languages spoken in Toronto • Toronto rivals New York and London as the most diverse city in the world
TORONTO VS MONTREAL • Montreal only has 33% of its population being born outside Canada • Why doesn’t Montreal have the same level of diversity as Toronto? Language and politics! Its language police crack down on anything not in French It attracts people from former French colonies (Haiti, Lebanon) and there are fewer of those than
TOP LANGUAGES What do you think are the Top 5 languages spoken in Toronto besides English? 1) Chinese 2) Italian 3) Punjabi 4) Tagalog 5) Portuguese
MORE DEFINITIONS • Mother Tongue: the first language you learned and still remember • Home Language: the language that is most commonly spoken by the members of a family for everyday interactions at home.
DEFINITIONS • Ethnic Origin: your cultural and racial background • Visible Minority: an ethnic group that looks different from the majority • Some people think this automatically means “Non-white”, but that’s only the case if the majority of the community or nation is white. For example, a white person in Nigeria would be a visible minority. Or a white person in some areas of Markham or Brampton would be a visible minority. • Chain Migration: when one wave of immigrants settle in a place and that encourages more waves of immigrants to move there, this forms ethnic neighbourhoods
TORONTO’S DIVERSITY What percent are visible minority? 51. 5% in 2016 49. 1% in 2011 13. 6% in 1981 Visible minorities are projected to increase to 63% of the city's population by 2031 We just keep getting more diverse! (Diversity = Strength!)
ETHNIC ENCLAVE : an area whose inhabitants are culturally or ethnically distinct from the surrounding area • Enclaves are largely concentrations by choice, voluntary. • They are a product of housing market and opportunities. • They are not ghettos in the sense that they are not the result of discrimination and poverty.
TORONTO’S ETHNIC NEIGHBOURHOODS This diversity is reflected in Toronto's ethnic neighbourhoods, which include: Chinatown Corso Italia Greektown Koreatown Little India Little Italy Little Jamaica Little Portugal Roncesvalles (Polish community)
http: //neoformix. com/ Projects/Dot. Maps/Tor onto. Vis. Min. html Another fascinating interactive map of visible minorities in Toronto
CLUSTERED IN CITIES • Most immigrants settle in cities: Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Ottawa • So these are the most culturally diverse parts of Canada • Why do people cluster together in enclaves? • Feel more comfortable living around people with similar language or cultural background • Problems with enclaves: • They can act as social barriers
RELIGION IN TORONTO (2011)
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CANADIAN AND AMERICAN SYSTEMS
CANADA = MOSAIC Mosaic: in Canada, immigrants can retain much more of their original culture (also called Salad Bowl theory) The mosaic is based on our belief that Canada as a whole becomes stronger by having immigrants bring with them their cultural diversity for all Canadians to learn from.
USA = MELTING POT Melting Pot: in the States, immigrants lose much more of their culture and become more alike and 'Americanized', they become more assimilated and blend into the dominant culture The cultural melting pot, as adopted in the United States, tells immigrants that no matter who they have been in the past, upon landing on American shores, they are Americans and are expected to adopt and follow the
MOSAIC Pros - Diversity strengthens society – It breeds open-mindedness – Many people in Canada are bilingual or multilingual Cons – Some groups may alienate themselves in enclaves – Sometimes cultural identities may clash with the Canadian identity Ex: a culture where polygamy is encouraged, a culture where religious law is supreme
MELTING POT Pros – Possibly fewer conflicts and tensions between ethnic groups due to the fact that everyone first and foremost identifies as an American – A feeling of nationalism which everyone can bond on – Everyone is coming together to make one new and unique culture Cons - Feeling resentful that your cultural identity is made to seem inferior next to an American identity – After a few generations families will lose all parts of their traditions and customs due to each new generation becoming fully assimilated in American culture – Loss of language at home because children learn English at school