- Slides: 11
Decision making • Having used memory to identify a stimulus that comes from our senses, the next stage in information processing is to make a decision about how to respond to the information that has been received. • This is the response selection stage. • The response selection stage has the task of deciding what movement to make, given the nature of the environment.
Single channel hypothesis. The single channel hypothesis explains that until one stimulus had a decision made about it, another cannot be acted upon. The decision making process cannot be overloaded. It becomes more effective if a task can be dealt with free from other matters. You must not clog up the system,
Decision making process cont. . The depth/width of the performers knowledge of the relevant signals (cues) and there ability to detect these cues early influences the time taken to make a decision. As skill level increases, outside interference to the decision making process is ignored. This is one reason why the skilled performer is better than the novice. Decision making can be improved by practice and is speeded up through coaching where the relevant ‘cues’ can be highlighted. The time spent making decisions is called reaction time. Reaction time is measured from the point in time from when the stimulus was given to the point in time where the stimulus is initiated.
Reaction time Largely genetically determined Influenced by knowledge of the stimulus Influenced by the intensity of the stimulus Males tend to have a faster reaction time than females. Reaction time slow as you get older. Influenced by fatigue Influenced by alcohol and drugs.
Movement time and response time The time from when the movement is initiated to the point when the movement is complete. Movement time is determined to a large extent by muscle fibre type and strength It is also effected by the level of learning of the motor programme involved. The time from the signal being presented to the response being completed is the response time. Response time = Reaction time + Movement time RT Movement time Response time
Reaction time can be divided into two types: u Choice reaction time u Is the time taken for an individual to respond correctly from a choice of several stimuli each one demanding a different response. E. G The football player deciding if they are going to shoot, pass or dribble. u Simple reaction time u Is quicker than choice u The time taken to start a single response to a single stimulus. u Choice reaction time is far more common in sport.
Hicks law The more choices you are given the slower your reaction time will be.
Lets put it into practice… • Sort the cards into 2 piles. One red one black- What's your time? • Sort the cards into 4 suits- What’s your time? Name Task 1 Task 2
Spatial and temporal anticipation Skilled performers appear to have more time in which to complete their skills. The skilled performer uses their past experiences to anticipate what is going to happen and actually being to process information before the event, thus saving time. Spatial anticipation Is when the performer programmes a pattern of movement prior to the movement being needed. Temporal anticipation Is when the performer predicts what is about to happen. The value of anticipation is that it gives the performer more time to complete a skill.
Psychological refractory period. Player starts to move right Player starts to move to the left Psychological refractory period Opponent starts to cover move Opponent begins to change direction The delay in the response to the second of two closely spaced stimuli. Ball players often attempt to increase the PRP in their opponents by disguising a shot (Dummy). According to the single channel hypothesis the PRP is due to the inability of the brain to deal with 2 stimuli.