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Chapter 14 Developing Guidance Skills
GUIDANCE q READ: Building Positive Teacher-Child Relationships (What Works Briefs #12) § How is building relationships important to developing guidance? q What do you think the difference is between § Direct guidance § Indirect guidance
Objectives q Identify goals of effective guidance. q List personality traits of effective early childhood teachers. q Describe principles of direct and indirect guidance. q Explain various techniques for effective guidance. q Summarize ways to promote a positive selfconcept in each child.
Goals of Guidance q Guidance: direct and indirect actions used by an adult to help children develop appropriate behavior patterns q Prosocial behavior: acts of kindness that benefit others
Guidance and You q Effective early childhood teachers encourage and show interest in children. q Teachers should interact often and ask openended questions. q Children imitate behavior, so model positive behaviors.
Preparing for Guidance q The first step is observation of the children. q Plan with other teachers. q Learn about family and cultural variations in children’s nonverbal behavior. § Nonverbal behavior: actions rather than words q Share observations, feelings, and suggestions. q Do not talk to other adults while you are teaching unless it is important. q Sit with the children whenever possible.
Direct Guidance q Indirect guidance: involves outside factors that influence behavior q Direct guidance: involves nonverbal and verbal actions q Facial expressions can communicate a variety of messages.
Use Simple Language q Young children have limited vocabularies.
Speak in a Relaxed Way q Speak in a calm, quiet, relaxed tone of voice. q Save loud voices for emergencies.
Be Positive q Guide children by telling them what to do, not what not to do.
Offer Choices with Care q Children should be offered a choice only when you want them to have a choice. q Do not try to get children to change their minds. You would then be telling them it was really not a choice.
Encourage Independence and Cooperation q Give children the least amount of help they need. q Children only become independent if allowed the opportunity. q Encourage children to work together.
Be Firm q Be firm, but at the same time, speak in a quiet voice. q Effective guidance requires firmness.
Be Consistent q Children are good at testing adults. q Make sure you are not only consistent with one child but all children.
Provide Time for Change q Without time for change, children become confused. q Time will allow the children to prepare themselves for new activities and a new environment.
Consider Feelings q Children need to recognize, understand, and express their feelings. q Feelings are best discussed in small groups or individually. q Young children need to learn how to handle mistakes.
Intervene When Necessary q Interrupt only when you can add to the knowledge of your students or promote their safety. q Safety intervention requires words and action. q The children need to be friends with all children. q Do not allow children to be excluded because of age, culture, or gender. q You must intervene when you hear something impolite. q Sharing also may require an intervention.
Indirect Guidance q Physical setup of a center is a form of indirect guidance. q Well-planned setup makes supervision easier. q Large open areas are the best. q Independence should be a learning objective regardless of age.
Techniques for Effective Guidance q Verbal environment: all communication that occurs within a setting q Guidance techniques include § § § § positive reinforcement use of consequences warning time-out persuading praising affirming suggesting § § § § prompting I-messages redirecting modeling listening ignoring encouraging
Positive Reinforcement q Positive reinforcement: rewarding positive behavior q Be careful to only reward behaviors you want repeated.
Using Consequences q Consequence: a result that follows an action or behavior q Natural consequences: experiences that follow naturally as a result of a behavior q Logical consequences: consequences deliberately set up by an adult to show what will happen if a limit is not followed q Make sure the child is aware of the limits.
Warning q When children fail to follow a limit, you remind them that they are misbehaving and their behavior will have consequences. q Warn only once. q If the behavior continues, follow through with consequences. q Use a firm voice that reflects your displeasure.
Time-Out q Time-out: guidance technique that involves moving a child away from others for a short period of time q Time-out is only used when the child’s disruptive behavior cannot be ignored. q To be effective, tell the children in advance what the consequences of bad behavior will be.
I-Messages q I-message: tells the child how you feel about his or her behavior q I-messages should include three parts: § the child’s behavior § your feelings about the behavior § the effects of the behavior
Effective Praise q Effective praise is specific and individualized to fit the situation and child. q The goal is to make the child feel capable and valued. q Remember the following: § § Make the praise age appropriate. Give praise immediately. When praising, establish eye contact. Do not overuse praise.
Suggesting q Suggesting means placing thoughts for consideration into children’s minds. q This in turn leads to action. q Always make suggestions positive.
Prompting q Prompting: make a verbal or nonverbal suggestion that requires a response; used either to stop an unacceptable action or start an acceptable one q Make prompting simple and noncritical.
Persuading q By persuading, you encourage children to act or behave in a certain way by appealing to their needs and wants. q Link behavior with the children’s feelings.
Redirecting q Redirecting: diverting, or turning, attention in a different direction q Redirection encourages children to express themselves in more socially acceptable ways.
Modeling q Modeling: verbal and nonverbal actions by one person, which then set an example for others q Set an example by modeling prosocial behavior.
Listening q Listening involves giving the children your full attention. q Active listening: listening to what is said, then repeating it
Ignoring q Do not encourage inappropriate behavior. q If a child’s behavior is not dangerous, avoid giving them attention. q Do not look directly at the child. q Avoid acknowledging the behavior. q If you choose to ignore the behavior, tell the child what behavior you are ignoring and what behavior you desire.
Encouraging q Encouraging is a technique that helps children believe in themselves. q Examples include the following: § § § You can do it all by yourself! You know how it works. I know you can fix it. You were able to do it last week. You must be pleased.
Prompting Positive Self-Concept q A child’s self-concept includes the qualities the child believes he or she possesses. q Self-concept is mirrored in behavior. q Children with positive self-concepts perceive themselves as able and important. q You can promote or undermine a child’s selfconcept with your words and actions. q Plan activities that make children feel good about themselves and their abilities.
Summary q Effective guidance skills are necessary for teaching. q Self-control is the long-term goal of guidance. q Child guidance may be direct or indirect. q When guiding children’s behavior, your actions should always promote a positive self-concept in each child.
Review q Discuss ways to promote positive self-concept.
Articles q “What Works Briefs” § #14 The role of time out in a comprehensive approach for addressing challenging behaviors of preschool children” § #15 Using choice and preference to promote improved behavior”