Bowlby Harlow Ainsworth Attachment Theory Attachment Theory l

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Bowlby, Harlow, Ainsworth Attachment Theory

Bowlby, Harlow, Ainsworth Attachment Theory

Attachment Theory l There is a deep emotional tie, almost a l l physical

Attachment Theory l There is a deep emotional tie, almost a l l physical connection with a loved one This is vital throughout life John Bowlby, Harry Harlow, Mary Ainsworth Powerful Survival Impulse Contact Comfort Monkeys Several Attachment Styles Existed

Theories of Attachment l Psychoanalytical Theory l l l Freudian Oral, Breast Feeding Behavioral/Learning

Theories of Attachment l Psychoanalytical Theory l l l Freudian Oral, Breast Feeding Behavioral/Learning Theory l l Infants become attached to people who feed and meet their needs The primary caregiver becomes the source of reinforcement – the infant will do whatever necessary to get the caregiver’s attention (cry, smile, babble)

Harlow’s Monkey Study How important is feeding? • Harlow researched this question in 1959

Harlow’s Monkey Study How important is feeding? • Harlow researched this question in 1959 • Critical Question: Would the monkeys become attached to the wire “mother” who feeds them or the soft, cloth mother?

Monkey Study Experimental Design Results?

Monkey Study Experimental Design Results?

How does this apply to human babies? à Babies who are deprived of physical

How does this apply to human babies? à Babies who are deprived of physical touch and emotional attachment were much more likely to suffer physical, social, emotional, and intellectual difficulties à Orphanages, Hospitals, Fathers, Daycares

Mary Ainsworth l Mary Ainsworth researched the ideas of attachment by placing human infants

Mary Ainsworth l Mary Ainsworth researched the ideas of attachment by placing human infants into novel situations. l Strange Situation: Ainsworth observed the reactions of babies when their parents left for a short time and then returned

Mary Ainsworth: Strange Situation l Infants with secure attachments (about 60 percent of the

Mary Ainsworth: Strange Situation l Infants with secure attachments (about 60 percent of the participants) confidently explore the novel environment while the parents are present l distressed when parent leaves l seek contact with parent upon returning. l

Mary Ainsworth: Strange Situation l The other Infants expressed insecure attachments Avoidant / Ambivalent

Mary Ainsworth: Strange Situation l The other Infants expressed insecure attachments Avoidant / Ambivalent attachment l Less likely to explore novel environment l Cries loudly when mother leaves or seems indifferent to departure or when she returns. l Harlow’s Monkeys were terrified when artificial mothers were removed from environment. l

Attachment and Relationships l Early attachments form the foundation of our adult relationships l

Attachment and Relationships l Early attachments form the foundation of our adult relationships l Secure Attachments l Trust, confidence, self reliance l Insecure l Attachments Jealousy, promiscuity, relationship insecurity

Critical Period for Attachment l Imprinting: A process by which certain animals form attachments

Critical Period for Attachment l Imprinting: A process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period early in life (Konrad Lorenz) l Optimal shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli produces proper development l Attachment: Mere-exposure/familiarity

Parental Patterns l Daumrind’s three main parenting styles l Authoritarian parenting l Permissive parenting

Parental Patterns l Daumrind’s three main parenting styles l Authoritarian parenting l Permissive parenting l Authoritative parenting

Parenting Style Quiz l Authoritarian l 2, 3, 7, 9, 12, 16, 18, 25,

Parenting Style Quiz l Authoritarian l 2, 3, 7, 9, 12, 16, 18, 25, 26, 29 l Permissive l 1, 6, 10, 13, 14, 17, 19, 21, 24, 28 l Authoritative l 4, 5, 8, 11, 15, 20, 22, 23, 27, 30

Parenting Styles

Parenting Styles

Group Discussion l What makes your parents choose a particular parenting style? l What

Group Discussion l What makes your parents choose a particular parenting style? l What factors are involved? l Do parents use the same style with ALL of the children in the household? Explain.

Authoritarian Parenting l Style of parenting marked by imposing rules and expecting obedience l

Authoritarian Parenting l Style of parenting marked by imposing rules and expecting obedience l Low in warmth l Discipline is strict and sometimes physical. l Communication high from parent to child and low from child to parent l Maturity expectations are high.

Permissive Parenting l Style of parenting marked by submitting to children’s desired, making few

Permissive Parenting l Style of parenting marked by submitting to children’s desired, making few demands, and using little punishment l High in warmth but rarely discipline l Communication is low from parent to child but high from child to parent. l Expectations of maturity are low.

Authoritative Parenting l Style of parenting marked by making demands on the child, being

Authoritative Parenting l Style of parenting marked by making demands on the child, being responsive, setting and enforcing rules, and discussing the reason behind the rules l High in warmth with moderate discipline l High in communication and negotiating l Maturity expectations are moderate.