- Slides: 20
WORLD HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY FINAL EXAM REVIEW
In what way did both Islam and Buddhism spread throughout the world? ○ Both Buddhism and Islam were caused to spread thru trade
What Song China inventions can be used to help ships navigate? ○ The magnetic compass
What are the Five Pillars of Islam in Arabic and what do they mean? ○ Faith-To become a Muslim a person must declare “There ○ ○ is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. ” Salah/prayer- Five times a day, Muslims face Mecca and pray Alms- The giving of money to the poor through a special religious tax Fasting/Sawm- During the Islamic holy month of Ramadam, Muslims must fast between dawn and sunset Hajj/ Pilgrimage- ALL Muslims who are physically and financially able must make a trip to Mecca at least once
What are the differences between Sunni and Shi’a Islam? Sunni Shi’a Believe that the first four caliphs were “rightly guarded” Believe that Ali, the Prophet’s son-in -law, should have succeeded Muhammad Believe that Muslim rulers should follow the Sunna or Muhammad’s example Believe that all Muslim rulers should be descended from Muhammad; do not recognize the authority of the Sunna Claim that the Shi’a have distorted the meaning of various passes in the Qur’an Claim that the Sunni have distorted the meaning of various passages in the Qur’an
What helped stop the spread of Islam in Southern Africa? ○ The Sahara Desert
What characteristics of the Mongol Empire encouraged trade? ○ Pax Mongolia- promised peaceful travel to merchants traveling on the silk road ○ Under Kublai Khan visits from foreign merchants were encouraged
How did the Bubonic Plague spread from east to west? Why did the Plague cause peasants revolts and anti-Semitism? How else did this effect society and culture? ○ The Bubonic Plague spread from east to west because of trade. The Plague caused peasants to revolt because they demanded higher wages and the nobles fiercely resisted. It affected society and culture because people lost their faith in the Church (not God) and the society of the middle ages was collapsing.
How did the West African Kings fund their government? What cultural influences did they share with South African kings? ○ The kings of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai (West African kings) acquired their wealth through taxing trade and trade routes. They were both influenced by Islam.
What trade items did Europe want from China? ○ Silk, porcelain
Political, Economic and cultural diffusion ○ This is the transfer of politics (government system), economics (trade, system of money, type of economy) and/or culture (religion, language) to another group of people, country or region. ○ Example: Russia adopted the language and religion of the Byzantine Empire. This would be an example of what type of diffusion?
Where and when was the social and political system of feudalism used? Feudalism developed in the Middle Ages as a result of conflicts among kingdoms in Western Europe. ○ China (11 th century B. C. to 256 B. C. ) under Zhou Dynasty and Japan from 1192 A. D. until the 19 th century.
What was the primary goal of the crusades? ○ The primary goal of the Crusades was to capture the city of Jerusalem
What were the reasons why Europeans did not feel guilty about taking territory from Native Americans by force? ○ Thought their culture was superior ○ Thought their religion was superior ○ Felt like they were helping Native Americans
What were the negative and positive aspects of the Columbian Exchange? What land water did it cover? Positives Negatives Introduction of new foods Introduction of disease Introduction of different Animals Taking of the Native American’s land Trade slavery The Colombian exchange crossed the Atlantic Ocean and involved the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia
To which continents did the Ottoman Empire spread Islam? ○ Europe, Asia, Africa
What was the ethical system of ancient China? ○ It was a system founded on the belief system of Confucianism. It stabilized Chinese society, supported a civil service and led to isolationism.
What were things that delayed political unification in Japan? ○ Mountainous areas and geography ○ Feudalism
What was the religion of the Mughals? What were examples of cultural blending in their empire? What was the consequence at first of trade and other forms of contact with non-Indians? ○ Muglas were Muslim ○ Examples of cultural blending: He allowed the people of India to continue speaking Hindi even though Persian was the language of Akbar’s people. ○ Out of Mughal armies, where soldiers came from many different backgrounds a new langauge emerged called Urdu. This is a mix between, Arabic, Persian and Hindi. Indians were able to keep their faith ○ Taj Mahal is an example of cultural blending. Has Hindu themes throughout the structure ○ At first there was a clash between the Hindu’s and the Muslims
How did Peter the Great westernize Russia? ○ Started Russia’s first newspaper ○ Introduced potatoes, which became a staple of the Russian diet ○ Raised women’s status by having them attend social gatherings ○ Ordered the nobles to give up their traditional clothes for Western fashion