- Slides: 25
Speed & Agility L 2 CSS&C
Speed requires • Speed of muscular contraction • Speed of limb movement.
Speed Components • • Linear Maximal Acceleration Reaction Deceleration Lateral Speed Endurance
Seven areas where training will enhance speed • Reaction to signal • Capacity to accelerate • Capacity to rapidly adjust balance to perform one skill after another • Achievement of maximum speed • Capacity to limit endurance factors on speed • Capacity to choose options quickly Dick Sports Training Principles 1997
Flexibility and maximum speed • Range of motion for appropriate joints is essential • Maximum speed requires a large range of motion of the shoulder, hip and knee joints.
Speed form and mechanics • The need to minimise ground contact time. • The need to reduce the time taken for the leg to complete a full stride cycle.
Mechanics continued • Place the foot as close under the centre of gravity as possible. • Minimise centre of gravity collapse with each stride. • Need for core strength
Acceleration • Rate of change of velocity for the first few strides. • Utilises maximum and explosive strength • Emphasis on backside mechanics and leg drive due to forward body lean
Maximum Strength is the Base For All Speed Aspects!!!!
Methods of Improving Speed Strength 1. Strength training 2. Resisted running • Sleds • Weighted vests • Harnesses • Hills • Stadium steps • Parachutes 3. Plyometrics
Plyometrics • Stretch-Shortening Cycle • Stretch Reflex • Aim to reduce the amortization phase/coupling phase
Designing a Programme • This will depend upon the level and age of your athlete • The importance is progression. • There are various ways in which to classify the intensity of the exercises. • Jumps in place • Standing Jumps • Multiple Hops and Jumps • Box Drills • Depth Jumps • Chu (1998)
Alternative classification • Jumps • Bounds and skips • Hops • Ricochets Intensity • Low • Moderate • High or shock intensity. • Radcliffe and Farentinos
Measuring Intensity and Volume • Volume is measured in foot contacts. When the feet touch the ground in a two footed jump this is classed as a single foot contact, if only one foot is used this is a single foot contact. Bounding exercises are generally measured in distance. • A session for a beginner would normally between 60 and 100 foot contacts, values of up to 450 foot contacts are quoted for more advanced athletes but experience shows that for team sport players more moderate numbers would be used e. g. Vern Gambetta uses 100— 120 for soccer and athletics, 45— 60 for heavy NFL players.
Methods of Improving Stride Frequency (Cadence) Overspeed • Bands • Downhill running • Towing • Treadmill • High frequency cycling
Stride Length & Frequency Stride frequency is considered by many to be the most difficult to improve Dr Ralph Mann in The Elite Athlete Project for Sprints and Hurdles suggested that for men in the short sprint (100 m) success was dependent upon leg strength The nature of team sports would suggest this format should take priority, particularly in an inexperienced athlete
Agility The ability to change direction without the loss of speed, strength, balance or body control. There is a direct correlation between improved agility and the development of athletic timing, rhythm and movement Sports Agility Kreiss & Costello 1993
Agility • Requires the need to – decelerate – adjust stride pattern and body position – accelerate again
Field/court specific agility • The ability to start quickly from different positions • Accelerate to top speed in the shortest possible time • Change direction and stop rapidly under control.
Evidence suggests that: • Less than 25% of agility performance is accounted for by straight line speed Instead by: • • Increased stride frequency Better balance Enhanced proprioception Improved “game sense/vision”
Strength Timing Speed Agility is dependent upon Rhythm Coordination Balance Costello & Kreiss op cit
Tumbling Drills Pattern Runs Ladder Drills Heiden Boards Methods used in improving agility Obstacles e. g. hurdles, bags Balance Beams Plyometrics Wobble Boards
Periodisation of Speed Training: two opinions
“The typical pre-season long running that is performed by many football codes to gain some quick fitness will have adverse effects on speed for the rest of the season by preconditioning the athletes to perform slowly, which can take up to 6 -8 months of speed type training to regain any quickness that is lost. A question that is regularly asked is when should speed training begin and how long should these sessions continue. Speed development should be performed all year round. ” (Adrian Faccioni Periodisation of Speed Training 1994 Strength and Conditioning Coach 2(4). )
“In many sprint training programmes, the development of the athletes physical potentials succeeds one another. The athlete trains endurance first, strength then speed. With such training the athlete becomes a long distance runner, a weight lifter, and then a target event specialist……. . The planning of conditioning and skill development through all preparation cycles prevents a decline in endurance and strength and provides a surplus of physical abilities towards the end of the specialised cycle……the athlete who trains sprinting skills only during the phase of specific preparation will end his/her season never reaching peak performance” (Remi Korchemny Innovations in Speed Development USAT&F)