Organic pathways Converting organic substances
Organic pathways �What is combustion? � Reaction of an organic compound with oxygen to make carbon dioxide and water. � Complete combustion results in carbon dioxide and water. � Incomplete combustion results in carbon monoxide and carbon � Both products of incomplete combustion are dangerous. � Alcohols (ethanol) can be used also with less energy.
Organic pathways �What is halogenation substitution in alkanes? � It is like the name implies, it is the substitution of one or more hydrogens with a halogen. � UV light allows for homolytic fission of a halogen. � Initiation, propagation, and termination.
Organic pathways �What happens in addition reactions of alkenes? � The double bond is opened up and a new reactant attaches to the open carbons. � The reactant determines the new substance. � Hydrogen (warm nickel), halogen, hydro-halogen, water (concentrated sulfuric acid).
Organic pathways �What is polymerization? � A polymer is a repeating unit. � Alkenes can be made into long chains by opening the double bond and making chains. � Addition polymers are repeating monomers.
Organic pathways �What is an esterification reaction? � An ester can be made from a carboxylic acid an alcohol. � It produces water so it can be called an elimination or condensation reaction.
Organic pathways �What is a nucleophilic substitution reaction? � This reaction replaces a halogen with an alcohol group. � SN 1 is bimolecular (2) for tertiary halogens (3) and happens quickly (boom) when the carbocation forms. � SN 2 is for primary halogens and involves an unstable intermediate molecule. � Secondary halogens go through both.
Organic pathways �What happens in the reduction of alcohols? � Alcohols can be turned into aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and ketones with acidified potassium dichromate. � Which type of alcohol can be turned into each? � What about tertiary alcohols?
Organic pathways �What are electrophilic substitution reactions in benzene? � The resonant structure is disrupted to substitute a hydrogen with another atom or group of atoms. � Nitrification of benzene with nitric acid.