Chemistry You will learn about: • Matter • p. H Scale • Chemistry of Cosmetics
Why Chemistry? The professional cosmetologist needs to understand the chemicals he/she works with in order to: - safely perform chemical services requested by clients, - teach clients how to care for their hair following chemical services, - and, sell products to their clients.
Matter • Anything that occupies space; exist in 3 forms: – Solids – weight, volume, shape – Liquids – weight, volume, no shape – Gasses – weight, indefinite volume and shape Liquid Gas
Organic Matter • Matter that is now living or was alive at one time. – Ex. - Plants and animals Plants and Mulch Humans Animals
Inorganic Matter • Matter that is NOT alive or has never been alive; does not contain carbon. – Ex. – rocks, water, minerals Rock – Granite Water Mineral - Quartz
Changes In Matter • Physical Change – Change the characteristics without making a new substance. • Ex. – Ice Melting • Chemical Change – A change in a substance that creates a new substance with chemical characteristics different from those of the original substance. • Ex. – Rust – oxygen mixed with metal creates rust (or iron oxide)
Properties of Matter 1. Color 2. Odor 3. Weight (density) 4. Hardness or softness
Elements that make up hair # Element 6 Carbon 8 Oxygen 1 Hydrogen 7 Nitrogen 16 Sulfur Symbol C O H N S Form Solid Gas Gas Solid
Atoms • Smallest complete unit of an element – 3 parts – proton, neutron, electron • Protons and neutrons packed tight in center to form core or nucleus • Electrons move about in orbiting paths at nearly the speed of light.
Nucleus • Proton – Positive electrical charge (+) – gives atom its name. • Neutron – No electrical charge – determines the weight of an atom - neutral • Electron – Negative electrical charge – makes it possible for atoms to combine with other atoms to form bonds.
Molecule • Molecules form when unstable atoms combine chemically by sharing electrons.
Chemical Bonds • Atoms combine chemically to create compounds that eventually create protein of hair.
Amino Acids • Compounds of C, O, H, N • 22 Common amino acids • Join together in chains to make proteins
Protein • Hair is made up of protein called keratin • Hair is 97% keratin and 3% trace minerals • Hair contains 19 of 22 common amino acids.
Hydrogen Bond • Unlike charges attract. • Makes up about 35% of hairs strength. • Individually very weak and can easily be broken by heat or water to create physical (temporary) changes in the hair. How it Works: • The hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to an atom of another molecule that has many negative electrons.
Salt Bonds • This bond is a result of the attraction of unlike charges. • Also broken by water to create physical (temporary) changes in the hair. How it Works: • Negative charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the positive charge in another amino acid grouping.
How Hydrogen and Salt Bonds are Broken by Water molecules can easily break hydrogen and salt bonds when the water molecules move in between the bonds. When the water molecules are not present the hydrogen and bonds come back together. H H 2 O H Hydrogen Bonds broken by water molecules H 2 O H
Disulfide Bonds • Sulfur containing side bond - Most important to a Cosmetologist. • A chemical bond that forms between protein structures; sulfur-type side chains join with other sulfur-type side chains to form disulfide bonds. • Much stronger than hydrogen or salt bonds. • Not broken by heat or water. Only a chemical change. – Example – permanent wave
van der Waal’s • Based on theory that atomic groups prefer an environment with other groups that have structures similar to theirs. • Not necessarily important for Cosmetologist, other than to know that it exists and plays a role in bonding of protein chains.
End Bonds (Peptide Bonds) • Backbone of all protein molecules • Links the amino acid protein chains together end to end. • Do not disturb the end bond, this could destroy the protein structure. – If broken, protein chains separate into small fragments, or revert to groups of amino acids that no longer have the characteristics of hair. • RESULT – VERY DAMAGED HAIR!
Side Bonds • Link the long spiraling protein chains together. • Made up of hydrogen, salt and disulfide and Van der Waal’s forces. Label the Bonds Van der Waal’s
Stages of Hair Formation 5. The individual protein 3. Amino acids unite to chains bond to other chains by 2. Unite to form peptide or end hydrogen bond, salt bonds become bonds. and disulfide bonds. molecules of amino acids. 1. Begins with individual atoms. 4. Amino acids create polypeptide protein chains. 6. Hair
Close Look at the Cuticle Layer
Chemistry Talking Points
The p. H Scale In this section you will learn what the p. H scale is and it’s values associated with water, acids and alkalines. Conditioners & Shampoo Hair Soap Hair relaxers
Potential Hydrogen • Abbreviation – p. H • Measures whether substance is acidic, neutral or alkaline
Water-Based Solutions • p. H measures amount of acid or alkali only in a water based solution. • Only solutions containing water or solutions that can be dissolved in water can be acid or alkaline in value. • Most products used in salon have water listed as main ingredient.
Acid More positive hydrogen ions than negative hydroxide ions
Acid • 0 – 6. 99 on p. H scale • Skin and hair acid-balanced at 4. 5 – 5. 5 Ex. Lemons and Conditioners
Neutral Equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions. 7. 0 Ex. Water
Alkaline • More negative hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions.
Alkaline • 7. 01 – 14 on p. H scale Ex. Amonia and Hair Relaxer
p. H Scale • Unit of measurement – determines if substance is acid, neutral or alkaline. • Ranges from 0 – 14 • 7 is Neutral
0 – 6. 99 • Acid range (orange) • More positive hydrogen ions
7. 01 - 14 • Alkaline range (purple) • More negative hydroxide ions
Testing p. H Nitrazine Paper
p. H Pencil
p. H Meter
Acid Balanced • p. H is in the same range as skin and hair • 4. 5 – 5. 5 Ex. Acid Balanced Shampoo
p. H Scale Conditioners & Shampoo Hair & Skin 4. 5 to 5. 5 Baby Shampoo Soap Hair relaxers
Chemistry of Cosmetics • Cosmetic Classifications –Based on how well a substance combines and its physical characteristics
Solutions • Mixture of 2 or more kinds of molecules –Do not separate –Can be solid, liquid or gas
Suspensions • Mixture of 2 or more kinds of molecules • Separates • Needs to be shaken – Example: Vinegar and Oil
Emulsions • 2 or more non-mixable substances united by a binder (gum). – Example: oil in water (perms) – Example: water in oil (cold cream)
Ointments • Mixture of organic substance and a medicinal agent • Semi-solid form • No water – Example: Lipstick
Soaps Mixtures of fat and oil converted to fatty acids by heat and then purified.
Powders • Equal mixtures of inorganic and organic substances that do NOT dissolve in water. • Sifted and mixed until free of coarse grit.
Shampoo • Cleans the scalp and hair • Removes all foreign debris without adversely affecting scalp and hair.
How Shampoo Works • A push pull action is caused by a surface active agent causing the oil to “roll up” into droplets that are lifted and rinsed away.
Surfactant • Surface active agent • Has water loving and oil loving ends. Surfactant Molecule Oil Loving Water Loving
The tail of the shampoo molecule is attracted to oil and dirt
Shampoo causes oil to roll up into small globules
During rinsing, the heads of the shampoo molecules attach to water molecules and cause debris to roll off.
Thorough rinsing washes away debris & excess shampoo.
The Role of Water • Universal solvent • Neutral p. H • Hard water = minerals –Hard to lather • Soft water preferred (allows lather)
Types of Shampoos
All Purpose • Low Alkaline • Low surfactants • Mild, does not strip color – Example: Redken Clear Moisture
Plain • • Usually strong High alkaline Not for chemically treated hair Follow with acid rinse – Ex: Baby shampoo • Doesn’t burn eyes because it’s high in alkaline and so are eyes.
Soapless Shampoo • Able to lather without harsh alkaline ingredient • Works in soft and hard water
Acid - Balanced • Made to have same p. H as the skin and hair • Will not strip color
Medicated • Often must have prescription • Designed to treat scalp and hair problems
Clarifying • Removes residue –Such as product build-up.
Anti-Dandruff • Control dandruff • Massage scalp vigorously and rinse thoroughly
Liquid Dry • Used when client can’t receive normal shampoo • Works with wigs • Evaporates from hair • Very drying
Powder Dry • For bedridden clients • Orris root powder absorbs oil and dirt as product is brushed through the hair. • Don’t use prior to chemical service.
Conditioning • Contain animal, vegetable or mineral additives that enter cortex or coat cuticle. • Improve strength and porosity.
Color • Contain temporary color molecules that stick to outer cuticle of hair.
For Thinning Hair • Gentle • Lighter molecular weight • Provides healthy environment for hair growth.
Rinses and Conditioners
Appearance Rinses and Conditioners give hair the appearance of Shine and Luster
Porosity - Amount of moisture in the hair. Hair Porosity is the ability of the hair to retain & absorb moisture, determined by how raised or compact the cuticle layers are.
Manageability How easily a comb passes through the hair.
Elasticity The hairs ability to stretch and return to its natural shape without breaking.
Types of Rinses
Vinegar and Lemon Rinse • Acid rinses • Remove soap scum • Counteract alkalinity.
Cream Rinse • Soften • Add luster • Only slightly acidic
Medicated Rinse Control dandruff and minor scalp conditions.
Instant Conditioner • Coat the hair shaft • Restore moisture and oils • Do NOT penetrate into the cortex • Not for fine limp hair
Normalizing • Contain vegetable protein • Acidic p. H causes cuticle to close after chemical services.
Body-Building • Required for fine, limp hair • Deposits protein • Can use prior to chemical services
Moisturizing • Humectants bind and hold moisture in the hair. • Avoid use for several days following perm (may go limp)
Customized • Formulated to meet special needs • Ex. Moisture and color
What We Just Read Head to Head Challenge
Chemistry Talking Points
WHAT WE JUST READ HEAD TO HEAD CHALLENGE