- Slides: 12
Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology
What Is Psychology? • Psychology – Psyche: Mind – Logos: Knowledge or study • Definition: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes – Behavior: can be directly observed (crying) – Mental Processes: cannot be directly observed (remembering); private, internal
What Might a Psychologist Research? • Development: Course of human growth and development • Learning: How and why it occurs in humans and animals • Personality: Traits, motivations, and individual differences • Sensation and Perception: How we come to know the world through our five senses
What Might a Psychologist Research? (cont’d) • Social: Human and social behavior • Cultural: How culture affects human behavior • Cognitive: How reasoning, problem solving, and other mental processes relate to human behavior • Evolutionary: How our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved during human history
Figure 1. 3 a FIGURE 1. 3 (a) Specialties in psychology. Percentages are approximate. Any particular psychologist might do several of these activities during a work week (APA, 1998). As you can see, most psychologists specialize in applied areas and work in applied settings.
Figure 1. 3 b FIGURE 1. 3. (b) Where psychologists work. Any particular psychologist might do several of these activities during a work week (APA, 1998). As you can see, most psychologists specialize in applied areas and work in applied settings.
Figure 1. 3 c FIGURE 1. 3 (c) This chart shows the main activities psychologists do at work. Any particular psychologist might do several of these activities during a work week (APA, 1998). As you can see, most psychologists specialize in applied areas and work in applied settings.
What Are the Goals of Psychology? 1. Description of Behaviors: Naming and classifying various observable, measurable behaviors 2. Understanding: The causes of behavior(s) 3. Prediction: Forecasting behavior accurately 4. Control: Altering conditions that influence behaviors – Positive Use: To control unwanted behaviors, (e. g. , smoking, tantrums, etc. ) – Negative Use: To control peoples’ behaviors without their knowledge
History of Psychology (Brief!): Beginnings • Wilhelm Wundt: “Father” of Psychology – 1879: Set up first lab to study conscious experience – Stimulus: Any physical energy that affects the person and provokes a response – Introspection: Looking inward (i. e. , examining and reporting your thoughts, feelings, etc. ) – Wundt’s ideas brought to the U. S. and renamed Structuralism
History of Psychology: William James • William James (American) and Functionalism – How the mind functions to help us adapt to our environment – Functionalists admired Darwin and his theory of Natural Selection: Animals keep features through evolution that help them adapt to environments
Many Flavors of Psychologists • Psychologists: Usually have masters or doctorate. Trained in methods, knowledge, and theories of psychology. – Clinical Psychologists: Treat psychological problems or do research on therapies and mental illnesses – Counseling Psychologists: Treat milder problems, such as poor adjustment at work or at a school • Psychiatrists: MD; usually use medications to treat problems. Generally do not have extensive training in providing “talk” therapy.
Many Flavors of Psychologists (cont’d) • Psychoanalysts: Receive additional Freudian psychoanalytic training post-Ph. D. or M. D. at an institute. • Counselors: Advisers who help solve problems with marriage, career, school, or work • Psychiatric Social Workers: Many have masters degrees and perform psychotherapy. – Use social science principles. – Presently a very popular profession. • Not all psychologists perform therapy!