Second Language Acquisition (B. Indonesia Acquisition)
q Acquisition? q Competence? Performance? q Learning style: - field dependent - field independent
Factors influencing SLA • Personal factors • General factors
• Personal factors: - group dynamics: overt comparisons/ competition with other learners, progress vs expectation - attitudes to the teacher & material: different views of a best teacher, different views of teacher’s role; like/dislike the course book - individual learning techniques: preparing & memorizing vocabulary list, learning words in context, practicing vocabulary
• General factors: - Age: (-) starting age does not affect the route/order of SLA; (-) starting age affects the rate/speed of learning; (-) number of years of exposure (-) starting age affects the level of accuracy (pronunciation & grammar)
- Intelligence & aptitude (-) intelligence: a general academic/ reasoning ability (-) aptitude: specific cognitive qualities - Cognitive style (learning style) - Attitudes & motivation - Personality
The Roles of Input in L 2 Acquisition 1. The behaviorist view 2. The nativist view 3. The interactionist view
1. The behaviorist view o Learner as a “language producing machine” o Input as stimuli graded into steps/stages o Input as feedback which reinforcing/correcting o progress is what happens outside the learner
2. The nativist view o Learner as a “grand initiator” o Exposure not account for acquisition o Input as a trigger o Emphasis on learner-internal factors
3. The interactionist view o Language acquisition as the result of an interaction between the learner’s mental ability and the linguistic environment o Language development as the result of input factors and of innate mechanism o Acquisition derives from the collaborative efforts of the learner & his interlocutors
Learner Strategies 1. Process plan for controlling instruction process. jpg 2. Types operations in the development of and realization of plan types 1. jpg types 2. jpg
The Role of Formal (Grammar) Instruction in L 2 (B. Indonesia) Acquisition Two practical questions: 1. Does formal/grammar instruction aid L 2 acquisition? 2. What kinds of formal instruction (techniques) facilitate L 2 acquisition most?
4 major components of LL aptitude: (1) phonetic coding ability: an ability to identify distinct sounds, and to form associations between them and representative symbols (2) grammatical sensitivity: the ability to recognize the grammatical functions of words (or other linguistic entities) in sentence structures (3) rote learning ability: a memorization technique based on repetition (4) inductive (language learning) ability: the ability to infer or induce the rules governing a set of language materials
Discussion 1. Learning style: field dependent and field independent. How can you bridge/accomodate these differences in the learning styles experienced by your students in one class? 2. Among the three views in SLA, which one is the most “appealing” to your group? Give your reasons!