Problem solving Five steps in problem analysis Gain

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Problem solving

Problem solving

Five steps in problem analysis � Gain agreement on the problem definition � Understand

Five steps in problem analysis � Gain agreement on the problem definition � Understand the root causes – the problem behind the problem � Identify the stakeholders and the users � Define the solution system boundary � Indentify the constraints to be imposed on the solution

Write the problem down and see whether everyone agrees Spend time to gain agreement

Write the problem down and see whether everyone agrees Spend time to gain agreement Element Description The problem of … Describe the problem Affects… Identify stakeholders affected by the problem And results in … Describe the impact of this problem on stakeholders and business activity Benefits of a solution … Indicate the proposed solution and lit a few key benefits

Understand the root causes – the problem behind the problem � Root cause analysis

Understand the root causes – the problem behind the problem � Root cause analysis � Fish bone diagram – each source for each bone � Ask the people directly involved � Investigate further � Produce Pareto analysis ->real cause � Prepare a new problem statement using the same table

Identify the stakeholders and the users � Understanding the needs of the users and

Identify the stakeholders and the users � Understanding the needs of the users and other stakeholders is a key factor in developing an effective solution ◦ Direct and indirect ◦ Tabulate Users Other stakeholders Sale order entry clerks MIS director and development team

Define the solution system boundary System Inputs � Two Outputs important classes of thing

Define the solution system boundary System Inputs � Two Outputs important classes of thing ◦ Our system ◦ Things that interact with our system (actors), System boundary I/O users Our solution Other systems I/O

How do we find these actors � Who will supply, use. Or remove information

How do we find these actors � Who will supply, use. Or remove information from the system? � Who will operate the system? � Who will perform any system maintenance? � Where will the system be used? � Where does the system get its information? � What other external systems will interact with the system?

Identify the constraints to be imposed on the solution �A restriction on the degree

Identify the constraints to be imposed on the solution �A restriction on the degree of freedom we have in providing a solution Source Sample descriptions Economics What financial or budgetary constraints apply? Are there costs of goods sol or any product pricing considerations? Are there any licensing issues? Technology Are we restricted in our choice of technologies? Are we constrained to work within existing platforms or technologies? Politics Systems Environment Schedule and resources