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Plasma membrane= Cell membrane SYSTEMS ORGANS TISSUES CELL
Introduction What dose the cell need to live? Each cell needs to obtain: • oxygen • other nutrients (carbohydrates, amino acids, lipid molecules, mineral ions, etc. ) from the environment • maintain water balance with its surroundings • remove waste materials from the cell The plasma membrane separates a cell from its external environment
Functions of plasma membrane 1. The phospholipid bilayer separates the outside from the inside of the cell. 2. Maintains the cell's environment by regulating materials that enter or leave the cell. 3. The plasma membrane is differentially, or selectively, permeable. Some materials enter and leave easily through the membrane, some with the assistance of membrane molecules, and some prohibited. Provides mechanisms for cell-to-cell communication. 4. Provides mechanisms for a cell to recognize "self" versus "nonself" (foreign materials), important to the immune system
The Fluid Mosaic Membrane Structure 1. The structure and function of a membrane depends on its molecular composition. 2. The membrane is formed from a phospholipid bilayer, with a number of associated proteins. 3. Membranes also contain carbohydrates (glycoproteins and proteoglycans) and glycolipids. 4. The resultant membrane structure (proteins scattered throughout the fluid phospholipid layers) resembles a mosaic, hence the name "fluid mosaic membrane". 5. Membrane molecules are manufactured in the endoplasmic reticulum and distributed by Golgi vesicles. 6. The orientation of membranes is determined at the manufacturing site. Molecules on the inside of the ER and Golgi vesicles become exterior membrane molecules.
Membrane Phospholipids 1. Phospholipids have both hydrophilic (polar) and hydrophobic (non polar) regions (in other words, they are amphipathic). 2. The fatty acid "tails" of the two phospholipid layers are oriented towards each other so that the hydrophilic "heads", which contain the "charged" phosphate portion, face out to the environment as well as into the cytoplasm of the cell's interior, where they can form hydrogen bonds with surrounding water molecules. 3. The phospholipid molecules of a membrane provide for its physical integrity.
Phospholipid Movements • A membrane is held together, for the most part, by hydrophobic interactions within the phospholipid bilayer. • Because individual phospholipid molecules are not bonded to each other, a membrane is flexible, or "fluid", particularly to lateral movement of the fatty acids. • Phospholipid molecules easily move along the plane of the membrane; reversing exterior – interior position (or flip-flopping) is less common.
Phospholipid Movements Factors that affect phospholipids movement: (1) Cholesterol, found in membranes of many animal cells, reduces fluid movement of the phospholipids, helping to maintain membrane integrity. (2) The saturation of fatty acids affects membrane fluidity – the more saturated, the less movement. (3) Membranes will also solidify as temperature decreases, reducing function. • The saturation of fatty acids will affect the temperature at which the membrane "solidifies" (just as it does with fats and oils). Unsaturated/Saturated
Membrane Proteins 1. 2. 3. 4. Interspersed throughout a membrane's phospholipid layer are a number of amphipathic proteins. The hydrophobic regions of the proteins are within the fatty acid regions of the phospholipids and hydrophilic regions are at the interior and exterior aqueous interfaces of the membrane. This orientation is important to the membrane proteins function. The membrane is also associated with a network of supporting cytoskeletal filaments, some of which help shape the cell and some help anchor proteins within the membrane.
Protein Mobility • Many proteins within the membrane are mobile; studies of fused mouse and human cells show that proteins from the two cells are intermixed within an hour of fusion • Membrane proteins are divided into two, depending on their location • Integral • peripheral
Membrane proteins Integral (Transmembrane) Proteins 1. Proteins that go through the membrane are called integral or transmembrane proteins. 2. They have hydrophobic (non-polar amino acids with alpha helix coiling) regions within the interior of the membrane and hydrophilic regions at either membrane surface hydrophilic regions hydrophobic regions hydrophilic regions
Peripheral Proteins • Are attached to the surface of the membrane, often to the exterior hydrophilic regions of the transmembrane proteins. • On the interior surface, peripheral proteins typically are held in position by the cytoskeleton. • On the exterior, proteins may attach to the extracellular matrix. • Peripheral proteins help give animal cell membranes strength. • The different proteins contribute to the "sidedness" of membranes so that the interior and exterior sides of membranes have different properties that affect its function.
Anchoring proteins • Other proteins have non-polar α helix regions that fix the protein into specific regions of the phospholipid bilayers. Such proteins are called anchoring proteins. • The protein receptors at neuromuscular junctions on muscle cells are anchored proteins. • Anchor proteins can attach to the fibrous network of the cytoskeleton to give shape and strength to some cells. • Some membrane lipid regions, called lipid rafts, are also specialized to help anchor proteins within a specific region.
Membrane Protein Functions • 1 -Transport Proteins • Transport Proteins are transmembrane proteins that serve as carriers for specific substances that need to pass through the membrane by providing a hydrophilic channel or pore. • Transport proteins have binding sites that attract specific molecules. Most of our ions, amino acids, sugars and other small nutrient molecules are moved through transport proteins. • When a molecule binds to the carrier protein, the protein shape changes moving the substance through the membrane. This process may require energy (ATP), and the ATP complex is then a part of the transport protein.
Membrane Protein Functions 2 - Enzymatic Proteins • Many enzymes are embedded in membranes, which attract reacting molecules to the membrane surface. • The active site of the enzyme will be oriented in the membrane for the substrate to bind. • Enzymes needed for metabolic pathways can be aligned adjacent to each other to act like an assembly line for the reactions, minimizing the need for intermediates to diffuse through the cytoplasm of the cell.
Membrane Protein Functions • 3 - Signal Transduction (Receptor) Proteins • Signal transduction proteins have attachment sites for chemical messengers, such as hormones. • The signal molecule, when it attaches to the receptor promotes a conformational change that transmits the message into the cell to trigger some cell activity.
Membrane Protein Functions 4 -Attachment Proteins • Attachment proteins attach to the cytoskeleton or extracellular matrix to help maintain cell shape (particularly for animal cells) 5 -Recognition (Identity) Proteins • Glycoproteins serve as surface receptors for cell recognition and identification. They are important to the immune system. 6 -Cell Adhesion (Intercellular Joining) Proteins • Special membrane proteins are responsible for the cell junctions (tight junctions, desmosomes and gap junctions. • they permit cells to adhere to each other.
Membrane Carbohydrates • Glycoproteins and glycolipids are also important to membrane structure and function. • Glycolipids function as recognition signals for cell-to-cell interactions. • Glycoproteins, with their oligosaccharides portions, are critical for a cell to be recognized by other cells and by protein molecules, and for cell-to-cell adhesion Glycoprotein complex with long Polysaccharide Collagen fiber Intgrine
• The cell membrane consists of three classes of amphipathic lipids: phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterols. The amount of each depends upon the type of cell, but in the majority of cases phospholipids are the most abundant.  In RBC studies, 30% of the plasma membrane is lipid. • The fatty chains in phospholipids and glycolipids usually contain an even number of carbon atoms, typically between 16 and 20. The 16 - and 18 -carbon fatty acids are the most common. Fatty acids may be saturated or unsaturated, with the configuration of the double bonds nearly always cis. The length and the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid chains have a profound effect on membrane fluidity as unsaturated lipids create a kink, preventing the fatty acids from packing together as tightly, thus decreasing the melting temperature (increasing the fluidity) of the membrane.
• Most membrane proteins must be inserted in some way into the membrane. For this to occur, an Nterminus "signal sequence" of amino acids directs proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum, which inserts the proteins into a lipid bilayer. Once inserted, the proteins are then transported to their final destination in vesicles, where the vesicle fuses with the target membrane. •