- Slides: 13
Intrinsic • Intrinsic motivation, also known as selfmotivation, refers to influences that originate from within a person which cause a person to act or learn. • This includes self-concept, self-esteem, self-satisfaction, personal values, and personal/emotional needs and drives.
Intrinsic • Enjoyment • Obligation - motivation based on what an individual thinks ought to be done
Extrinsic • Extrinsic motivation drives one to do things for tangible rewards or pressures, rather than for the fun of it. • You can offer positive motivations such as rewards and other bribery or you can use negative motivation such as threats and blackmail. Either way, extrinsic motivation is crude, easy and often effective. However it focuses people on the reward and not the action.
Extrinsic • A reinforcer is different from a reward, in that reinforcement is intended to create a measured increase in the rate of a desirable behavior following the addition of something to the environment.
Students are more likely to experience intrinsic motivation if they: • Attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control (eg. the amount of effort they put in, not ‘fixed ability’). • Believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (eg. the results are not determined by dumb luck. • Are motivated towards deep 'mastery' of a topic, instead of just rote-learning 'performance' to get good grades. • Note that the idea of reward for achievement is absent from this model of intrinsic motivation, since rewards are an extrinsic factor.
A Few Theories • David Mc. Clelland’s achievement motivation theory envisages that a person has need for three things but people differ in degree in which the various needs influence their behavior: • Need for achievement, • Need for power, and • Need for affiliation
Maslow - Hierarchy of Needs • Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior; only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior, satisfied needs cannot. • Since needs are many, they are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex. • The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. • The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, while others do not, but if absent lead to dissatisfaction. He distinguished between: ･Motivators; (e. g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and ･Hygiene factors; (e. g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) which do not motivate if present, but if absent will result in demotivation. This one is easy to understand.
Bandura - Self-Efficacy
• Self-belief does not necessarily ensure success, but self-disbelief assuredly spawns failure. • By sticking it out through times, people emerge from adversity with a stronger sense of efficacy. • People who hold a low view of themselves will credit their achievements to external factors rather than to their own capabilities. • If self-efficacy is lacking, people tend to behave ineffectually, even though they know what to do.
Motivation • How can you, with this new understanding of motivation, alter your actions to achieve a specific goal?