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MORPHEMES • • • Happy Happily Unhappily Dogcatchers • • • Happy (1) Happi | ly (2) Un | happi | ly (3) Dog | catch |er | s (4)
Morphology = the study of the structure and classification of words and the units that make up words. Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning. The morpheme cannot be broken down into more meaningful units: friends = friend + plural (he) walks = walk + present tense singular –s rewrite = repetition + write
A free morpheme is a meaningful grammatical unit that can stand alone (friend in friends), (love in lovely). A bound morpheme is a meaningful grammatical unit that cannot stand alone (–s in friends, -ly in lovely).
FREE AND BOUND MORPHEMES lexical free functional morpheme Derivational bound inflectional
MORPHEMES FREE lexical functional Eat if Finger she Pretty on Bird and BOUND Derivational inflectional (happi)ly (bird)s Re(write) (eat)ing Un(happy) (walk)ed (govern)ment (cheap)er Inflectional morphemes: girl’s, girls, walked, walking, taken, smaller, smallest
AFFIXES AND STEMS apples: Prefix stem apple suffix s ex-wife’s: ex wife ‘s unfriendly: un friend ly Disagree: dis agree
Free morphemes function as stems, bound morphemes as affixes (ie. prefixes or suffixes) However, there also bound stems: vision, visible, visibility < visi?
Allomorphs: different realisations of the same meaning, eg different plural markers; Cat + s cats /s/ Peas + s peas /z/ Bus + es buses /iz/ Sheep + /Ø/ sheep /Ø/
Use the correct prefix to form the opposite of Approve Bug Expensive Happy Logical Possible
Suffixes which form abstract nouns: - dom - hood - ment - ness - ship freedom childhood amazement worthiness kinship
Suffixes which form concrete nouns: - ant - eer - ist - or contestant employee pioneer royalist survivor
What ford formation processes are the following words a result of? a. moped b. babysit c. sunlight d. movement e. to dirty f. chunnel
What ford formation processes are the following words a result of? housekeep prof Dinky galumph WASP boyhood
What kind of morphemes do these words contain? textbook kindness blackbird actor but buses refusal smallish their meetings yearly asked took unbelievably