- Slides: 15
What chromosome is made of? - chromosome is made of chromatin (nucleic acid and protein). - when in mitotic and meiotic stages of cell cycle, chromatin (euchromatin & heterochromatin) stains readily.
Chromosome Packaging Chromatin is organised on three basic levels: - primary (nucloesome) - secondary (solenoid) - tertiary/quaternary (final folding into chromosome shape) A typical eukaryotic chromosome contains 1 to 20 cm of DNA. During metaphase of meiosis/mitosis, this DNA is package into a chromosome with a length of only 1 to 10 m (a condensation of almost 104 -fold in length from the naked DNA molecule).
Chromosome Packaging Base pairing
Chromosome Packaging double strand
Chromosome Packaging double helix
Chromosome Packaging beaded string (beads-on-a-string) – nucleosome structure of chromatin
Chromosome Packaging nucleosome
Chromosome Packaging - nucleosome contains histones (2 of each H 2 A, H 2 B, H 3 and H 4, and one H 1) - histones (102 amino acid residues; containing up to 20% lysine and arginine) are highly positively charged – to counteract the negative charges of the phosphate groups on the double helix backbone. - modification (acetylation, methylation or phosphorylation) of histone tail will affect the level of positive charge to regulate DNA compaction.
Chromosome Packaging - the diameter of nucleosome (bead) is 11 nm. - 200 bp of DNA associated with one bead, 145 bp are associated with the histone core, 23 bp protected by H 1 and 8 to 114 bp (depends on species and type of cells) form a linker between beads. - the rate of DNA winding is 1. 7 turns per core particle, producing a six- to sevenfold reduction in the length of DNA.
Chromosome Packaging Second level of chromatin organization: solenoid - the nucleosome is supercoiled and organised into a solenoid structure, with 6 -7 nucleosomes per turn. - H 1 stabilizes the structure of solenoid. - the supercoiling produces a fibre of approximately 30 nm in diameter.
Chromosome Packaging Higher order folding of chromatin into chromosome
What are the roles of chromosome packaging?
Roles of Chromosome Packaging Protection Compaction DNA metabolism