- Slides: 19
Ecology Organisms and Their Environment
Ecology • Ecology is the study of organisms and how they interact with their environment. • An ecosystem consists of all the living and non-living things in a given area that interact with one another.
Some Vocabulary • Communities: many different types of organisms living together in an ecosystem • Populations: a particular species within a community (they are similar and can reproduce) • Habitat: The place in which an organism lives
Food and Energy • Producers are the plants that take energy from the Sun and turn it into food. • Consumers get their food by eating plants or organisms that eat plants. • Decomposers get their energy by breaking down dead organisms into simpler substances.
Chains and Webs • Food Chains are strings of organisms that link up together by what they eat Grass Antelope Lion Bacteria • When food chains overlap they are referred to as Food Webs (It’s never as simple as the example above because there are more producersconsumers-and decomposers involved)
The Battle Begins • Organisms Compete for their resources – They compete with members of their own species – They compete with other species for food, water, and even things like sunlight – They even compete for mates and the resources needed for reproduction
Predation • A predator is any organism that kills and eats another organism • The prey is the organisms that are killed and eaten How might it benefit a species to be hunted by predators?
Symbiosis Organisms in a close relationship that benefits at least one of them • Commensalism – One organism benefits and the other is not affected • Mutualism – Both organisms benefit from the relationship • Parasitism – One organism benefits and one is harmed by the relationship
Adapting to the Environment • Adaptation: Evolutionary changes that make organisms better suited to their environment • Natural Selection: Individuals best suited to the environment survive and flourish to successfully reproduce
What are some Adaptations? • How have organisms adapted to their climate? • To predators? • To Competition?